Friday, November 18, 2011


Caller: Barry In California

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, and welcome. Lark In Texas with you… on this Saturday – November 19th, 2011 – for the next hour.
Republic Broadcasting exists to bring forth real news and information… you’d be hard-pressed to find… anywhere else.
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For detailed program notes of this broadcast, currently posted – or any of those previous – refer to the web address … and you will find the web log… for Justa Numerican.
Today, ladies and gentlemen, how a tyranny-of-words has propelled the Numerican people... in a headlong rush... into the future. John in Tennessee raised this issue with us - transhumanism - in last week's episode... entitled Panopticon... and Ronni in Oregon... pointed to how easily one is tricked... into joining this stampede charging the abyss...
... While articulating a clear distinction... between Power... versus Force.
Our Program Notes are already posted and entitled... Transitions. Links are supplied to a variety of subject matters... but especially to the video documentary by Aaron Franz... called The Age of Transitions...
... Which I share with you today. How are you contributing to this dystopian nightmare... termed our common destiny? And what are you going to do... to combat it?

Is it true? That we have met the enemy... and he is us?

I suggest a virtual mastermind group... and that we co-develop... a definitive...  dead easy simple [that's workable and replicable]... PLAN. And so... to facilitate such a dialog, ladies and gentlemen... I would encourage you to simply... just shoot me an email. 

My address is 
Effective Communication: Economy of Words
Linear Thinking v Pattern Recognition

Mainspring :: Mindshare

Dadaism v Consequentialism v Utopianism v Dystopianism v Constructivism v Futurism
Vocabularity :: Singularity :: Artificiality :: Transhumanism :: Convergence
Memetic Warfare = Hegelianism = Socialism = Gangsterism

Co[u]nt[e](r)act :: Well-Being :: Economy

I am not what I think. I'm not what I say. I am what I do.

Creativity - The Human Resource

How the British Use the Media for Mass Psychological Warfare
Tavistock's language project: the origin of 'Newspeak'
At the start of World War II, Tavistock operatives, including Brig. Gen. John Rawlings Rees in the Psychological Warfare Directorate, were busy at work on a secret language project. The target of that project was not the "enemy," but the English language itself, and the English-speaking people.
The Tavistock crowd had picked up on the work of British linguist C.K. Ogden, who had created a simplified version of the English language using some 850 basic words (650 nouns and 200 verbs), with rigid rules for their use. Called "Basic English” or “Basic” for short, the product was ridiculed by most English-speaking intellectuals; Ogden's proposal to translate Classic literature, such as Marlowe and Shakespeare, into Basic, was rightfully attacked as an effort to trivialize the greatest expressions of English-language culture.
But in the bowels of the psywar directorate, the concepts behind Basic were key to large-scale control of dangerous "thought." A simplified English language limits the degrees of freedom of expression, and inhibits the transmission of meaning through metaphor. It is then easy to create a "reality" that can be massaged through the mass media, such as radio. A reduced language is a straitjacket for the human mind.
The British Ministry of lnformation, which controlled all broadcasting and news dissemination, decided to experiment with the effectiveness of Basic. The British Broadcasting Corp. was asked to produce some newscasts in Basic, which were broadcast in a number of foreign sections of the BBC, including the Indian Section, which included among its operatives 1984 author George Orwell and his close friend Guy Burgess, who later was to be involved in Britain's biggest postwar Soviet spy scandal.
The results were carefully monitored. Those involved quickly discovered that, with some modification, the language was ideal to present a censored, edited version of the news. Since it lent itself to simple, declarative statements, it gave those statements the character of fact, even though the information being reported was heavily censored or even self-admitted propaganda.
British 'empires of the mind'
Following the presentation of a special report on these findings in 1943, the Basic project was placed on "highest priority" in the War Cabinet, at the insistence of Prime
Minister Winston Churchill. The project, now-declassified papers reveal, was to be expanded to include work in the United States. While not revealing the secret research on the psychological implications of Basic, Churchill became its cheerleader, promoting the new language as the basis for a renewed bond between Britain and its fom1er colony, America. On Sept. 6, 1943, in a speech at Harvard University, Churchill called for "a new Boston Tea Party," to overturn the English language and replace it with Basic.
Telling his audience of Anglophiles that they were at the "headstream" of a mighty cultural sea change that would have a "health-giving effect," he declared that the power to control language "offer[s] far better prizes than taking away people's provinces or lands or grinding them down in exploitation. The empires of the future are the empires of the mind."
But the public side of the project met resistance from the British and American public, who, while not necessarily grasping the full implications of Basic, nonetheless resented being told how to speak. And there was no support forthcoming from the U.S. President, Franklin Roosevelt, who considered Basic "silly."
However, reports from the Ministry of Information to the special War Cabinet committee said that the language was unwieldy. Rather than overturn the English language, the reports argued, it were easier to simplify the latter's usage by example of the mass media news broadcasts.
Radio newscasts, which had been made up of long descriptive commentaries before the war, took on the shorter formats that are featured today. The long sentences, often with literary overtones, gave way to shorter, more direct sentences and simple vocabulary.
Television news has adopted this linguistic style: simple direct sentences, with a very, very limited vocabulary.
Television newscasts, never too informative and erudite, have become less so in recent years, as they were forcibly dumbed down. When Roone Arledge, the former head of ABC sports, took over its poorly rated news division in the mid-1970s, he demanded that news broadcasts be simplified and made easier to understand.
In a 1979 article in Washingtonian magazine, media expert and political scientist John David Barber supported Arledge's approach to the news, arguing that its language "passes right over the head of the great lower half of the American electorate." He compiled a list of 31 words that he thought should be excised from a CBS news broadcast; included was the term "political conspiracy." Wrote Barber, "There is no way that [that] vocabulary can catch and hold the average high school graduate."
Most news directors agree with that assessment: Vocabulary analysis of newscasts reveals that, other than specialized terms, names of places, and proper names, far less than Basic's 850-word vocabulary is employed.' Recent studies have shown that the vocabulary of the average American, while not quite at the Basic level of 850 words (excluding proper nouns and specialized terms), is plunging toward that level.
-L. Wolfe
·         Some historians have claimed that Orwell's "Newspeak." in his 1984, is a simple parody of Basic. To the contrary: Orwell was one of the most avid supporters of the Basic concept of reduced language. What appealed to him most was its simplicity and its apparent ability to abolish "jargon."
He also thought that anything without real meaning, when reduced to its Basic translation, would be easily seen to be absurd. A utopian, Orwell, in his letters, expressed concern over the power of the Ministry of Information (Mini form, as it was known) to control and manage the news. It was that aspect of the process, not Basic's degrading of the English language, that he parodied in 1984 with his "Newspeak," controlled by Minitrue, the Ministry of Truth.
·         The vocabulary of non-news television is even more degraded and limited.
The Age of Transitions
The Dystopia Planned For Our Future

"There will be, in the next generation or so, a pharmacological method of making people love their servitude, and producing dictatorship without tears, so to speak, producing a kind of painless concentration camp for entire societies, so that people will in fact have their liberties taken away from them, but will rather enjoy it, because they will be distracted from any desire to rebel by propaganda or brainwashing, or brainwashing enhanced by pharmacological methods. And this seems to be the final revolution."
- Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World

Converging technology, transhumanism, and our future in the making. The cutting edge group known as transhumanists see a beautiful future brought about by artificial intelligence, life extension, and cybernetics. What one must realize before getting carried away with such utopian dreams is that transhumanism was born out of the elitist pseudo-science eugenics. This documentary provides vital information on the history of eugenics and its new cutting edge transformation.
Film by Aaron Franz

Our Enlightened Education

By Robert Beaudine

The home schooling industry is enjoying a surge in popularity. Because of the time, effort, and additional expense involved, this prompts the question: Are more parents exploring this option because our public educational system has failed? This article will examine the progressive reforms of John Dewey and his fellow “Frontier Thinkers,” and the fundamental changes that altered the underlining purpose of our public education. This article will show that our public educational system has not failed. It has succeeded – brilliantly so – based upon the covert change in the ultimate purpose of public education.

John Dewey (1859-1952) was a progressive thinker. He was a philosopher, an educational reformer, and a prolific writer. When you read Dewey’s writings, it is obvious that John Dewey was also an ardent socialist. This explains why he became the president of the League for Industrial Democracy in 1939. This was the socialist American counterpart to the socialist British Fabian Society.[1] In 1950, he was named the honorary national chairman.

John Dewey published “My Pedagogic Creed” in 1897. Here he set his primary goal to be the destruction of the child’s individualism. This would enable the child to conform and get along with the group no matter what group he joined, especially that noble group called “citizens of the world.” Dewey had learned that it is difficult to produce good international socialists out of nationalistic-minded individualists.

All of Dewey’s early experimental schools were dismal failures, but he was forward thinking and not dismayed. In 1904, he went to Columbia University’s Teacher College to teach and write and experiment. There he schemed with other educational tinkerers called the “Frontier Thinkers.” At the forefront were Dr. George Counts, Dr. Harold Rugg, Dr. William Scott Gray, and Dr. Arthur I. Gates. Together, they destroyed traditional education and replaced it with their progressive reforms.

The Soviet Art of Brainwashing
A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics
PSYCHOPOLITICS - The art and science of asserting and maintaining dominion over the thoughts and loyalties of individuals, officers, bureaus, and masses, and the effecting of the conquest of enemy nations through "mental healing."
The Dangers of Internationalism
By Arthur Kitson
Globalization is Genocide
By John Hoefle
The House of Rothschild
Feature Film (1934)
NPR: On Capitol Hill, Rand’s ‘Atlas’ Can’t Be Shrugged Off
Covert Channels
By Anton Chuvakin
The Mind Has No Firewall
Mr. Timothy L. Thomas
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS

This article first appeared in the Spring 1998 issue of Parameters

"It is completely clear that the state which is first to create such weapons will achieve incomparable superiority."

Major I. Chernishev, Russian Army 1

The human body, much like a computer, contains myriad data processors. They include, but are not limited to, the chemical-electrical activity of the brain, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the signals sent from the cortex region of the brain to other parts of our body, the tiny hair cells in the inner ear that process auditory signals, and the light-sensitive retina and cornea of the eye that process visual activity. 2 We are on the threshold of an era in which these data processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated. Examples of unplanned attacks on the body's data-processing capability are well-documented. Strobe lights have been known to cause epileptic seizures. Not long ago in Japan, children watching television cartoons were subjected to pulsating lights that caused seizures in some and made others very sick.

Defending friendly and targeting adversary data-processing capabilities of the body appears to be an area of weakness in the US approach to information warfare theory, a theory oriented heavily toward systems data processing and designed to attain information dominance on the battlefield. Or so it would appear from information in the open, unclassified press. This US shortcoming may be a serious one, since the capabilities to alter the data processing systems of the body already exist. A recent edition of U.S. News and World Report highlighted several of these "wonder weapons" (acoustics, microwaves, lasers) and noted that scientists are "searching the electromagnetic and sonic spectrums for wavelengths that can affect human behavior." 3 A recent Russian military article offered a slightly different slant to the problem, declaring that "humanity stands on the brink of a psychotropic war" with the mind and body as the focus. That article discussed Russian and international attempts to control the psycho-physical condition of man and his decision making processes by the use of VHF-generators, "noiseless cassettes," and other technologies.

An entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on devices designed to introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body's psychological and data processing capabilities, might be used to incapacitate individuals. These weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various sensory and data-processing systems of the human organism. In both cases, the goal is to confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium.

This article examines energy-based weapons, psychotropic weapons, and other developments designed to alter the ability of the human body to process stimuli. One consequence of this assessment is that the way we commonly use the term "information warfare" falls short when the individual soldier, not his equipment, becomes the target of attack.

Information Warfare Theory and the Data-Processing Element of Humans

In the United States the common conception of information warfare focuses primarily on the capabilities of hardware systems such as computers, satellites, and military equipment which process data in its various forms. According to Department of Defense Directive S-3600. 1 of 9 December 1996, information warfare is defined as "an information operation conducted during time of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries." An information operation is defined in the same directive as "actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems." These "information systems" lie at the heart of the modernization effort of the US armed forces and other countries, and manifest themselves as hardware, software, communications capabilities, and highly trained individuals. Recently, the US Army conducted a mock battle that tested these systems under simulated combat conditions.

US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics (released 30 September 1997), defines information warfare as "actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting a hostile's information, information based-processes, and information systems, while defending one's own information, information processes, and information systems." The same manual defines information operations as a "continuous military operation within the military information environment that enables, enhances, and protects friendly forces' ability to collect, process, and act on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations. [Information operations include] interacting with the Global Information Environment . . . and exploiting or denying an adversary's information and decision capabilities." 4

This "systems" approach to the study of information warfare emphasizes the use of data, referred to as information, to penetrate an adversary's physical defenses that protect data (information) in order to obtain operational or strategic advantage. It has tended to ignore the role of the human body as an information- or data-processor in this quest for dominance except in those cases where an individual's logic or rational thought may be upset via disinformation or deception. As a consequence little attention is directed toward protecting the mind and body with a firewall as we have done with hardware systems. Nor have any techniques for doing so been prescribed. Yet the body is capable not only of being deceived, manipulated, or misinformed but also shut down or destroyed-just as any other data-processing system. The "data" the body receives from external sources-such as electromagnetic, vortex, or acoustic energy waves-or creates through its own electrical or chemical stimuli can be manipulated or changed just as the data (information) in any hardware system can be altered.

The only body-related information warfare element considered by the United States is psychological operations (PSYOP). In Joint Publication 3-13. 1, for example, PSYOP is listed as one of the elements of command and control warfare. The publication notes that "the ultimate target of [information warfare] is the information dependent process, whether human or automated .... Command and control warfare (C2W) is an application of information warfare in military operations.... C2W is the integrated use of PSYOP, military deception, operations security, electronic warfare and physical destruction." 5

One source defines information as a "nonaccidental signal used as an input to a computer or communications system." 6 The human body is a complex communication system constantly receiving nonaccidental and accidental signal inputs, both external and internal. If the ultimate target of information warfare is the information-dependent process, "whether human or automated," then the definition in the joint publication implies that human data-processing of internal and external signals can clearly be considered an aspect of information warfare. Foreign researchers have noted the link between humans as data processors and the conduct of information warfare. While some study only the PSYOP link, others go beyond it. As an example of the former, one recent Russian article described offensive information warfare as designed to "use the Internet channels for the purpose of organizing PSYOP as well as for 'early political warning' of threats to American interests." 7 The author's assertion was based on the fact that "all mass media are used for PSYOP . . . [and] today this must include the Internet." The author asserted that the Pentagon wanted to use the Internet to "reinforce psychological influences" during special operations conducted outside of US borders to enlist sympathizers, ,,who would accomplish many of the tasks previously entrusted to special units of the US armed forces.

Others, however, look beyond simple PSYOP ties to consider other aspects of the body's data-processing capability. One of the principal open source researchers on the relationship of information warfare to the body's data-processing capability is Russian Dr. Victor Solntsev of the Baumann Technical Institute in Moscow. Solntsev is a young, well-intentioned researcher striving to point out to the world the potential dangers of the computer operator interface. Supported by a network of institutes and academies, Solntsev has produced some interesting concepts. 8 He insists that man must be viewed as an open system instead of simply as an organism or closed system. As an open system, man communicates with his environment through information flows and communications media. One's physical environment, whether through electromagnetic, gravitational, acoustic, or other effects, can cause a change in the psycho-physiological condition of an organism, in Solntsev's opinion. Change of this sort could directly affect the mental state and consciousness of a computer operator. This would not be electronic war or information warfare in the traditional sense, but rather in a nontraditional and non-US sense. It might encompass, for example, a computer modified to become a weapon by using its energy output to emit acoustics that debilitate the operator. It also might encompass, as indicated below, futuristic weapons aimed against man's "open system."

Solntsev also examined the problem of "information noise," which creates a dense shield between a person and external reality. This noise may manifest itself in the form of signals, messages, images, or other items of information. The main target of this noise would be the consciousness of a person or a group of people. Behavior modification could be one objective of information noise; another could be to upset an individual's mental capacity to such an extent as to prevent reaction to any stimulus. Solotsev concludes that all levels of a person's psyche (subconscious, conscious, and "superconscious") are potential targets for destabilization.

According to Solntsev, one computer virus capable of affecting a person's psyche is Russian Virus 666. It manifests itself in every 25th frame of a visual display, where it produces a combination of colors that allegedly put computer operators into a trance. The subconscious perception of the new pattern eventually results in arrhythmia of the heart. Other Russian computer specialists, not just Solntsev, talk openly about this "25th frame effect" and its ability to subtly manage a computer user's perceptions. The purpose of this technique is to inject a thought into the viewer's subconscious. It may remind some of the subliminal advertising controversy in the United States in the late 1950s.

US Views on "Wonder Weapons": Altering the Data-Processing Ability of the Body

What technologies have been examined by the United States that possess the potential to disrupt the data-processing capabilities of the human organism? The 7 July 1997 issue of U.S. News and World Report described several of them designed, among other things, to vibrate the insides of humans, stun or nauseate them, put them to sleep, heat them up, or knock them down with a shock wave. 9 The technologies include dazzling lasers that can force the pupils to close; acoustic or sonic frequencies that cause the hair cells in the inner ear to vibrate and cause motion sickness, vertigo, and nausea, or frequencies that resonate the internal organs causing pain and spasms; and shock waves with the potential to knock down humans or airplanes and which can be mixed with pepper spray or chemicals. 10

With modification, these technological applications can have many uses. Acoustic weapons, for example, could be adapted for use as acoustic rifles or as acoustic fields that, once established, might protect facilities, assist in hostage rescues, control riots, or clear paths for convoys. These waves, which can penetrate buildings, offer a host of opportunities for military and law enforcement officials. Microwave weapons, by stimulating the peripheral nervous system, can heat up the body, induce epileptic-like seizures, or cause cardiac arrest. Low-frequency radiation affects the electrical activity of the brain and can cause flu-like symptoms and nausea. Other projects sought to induce or prevent sleep, or to affect the signal from the motor cortex portion of the brain, overriding voluntary muscle movements. The latter are referred to as pulse wave weapons, and the Russian government has reportedly bought over 100,000 copies of the "Black Widow" version of them. 11

However, this view of "wonder weapons" was contested by someone who should understand them. Brigadier General Larry Dodgen, Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Policy and Missions, wrote a letter to the editor about the "numerous inaccuracies" in the U.S. News and World Report article that "misrepresent the Department of Defense's views." 12 Dodgen's primary complaint seemed to have been that the magazine misrepresented the use of these technologies and their value to the armed forces. He also underscored the US intent to work within the scope of any international treaty concerning their application, as well as plans to abandon (or at least redesign) any weapon for which countermeasures are known. One is left with the feeling, however, that research in this area is intense. A concern not mentioned by Dodgen is that other countries or non-state actors may not be bound by the same constraints. It is hard to imagine someone with a greater desire than terrorists to get their hands on these technologies. "Psycho-terrorism" could be the next buzzword.

Russian Views on "Psychotropic War"

The term "psycho-terrorism" was coined by Russian writer N. Anisimov of the Moscow Anti-Psychotronic Center. According to Anisimov, psychotropic weapons are those that act to "take away a part of the information which is stored in a man's brain. It is sent to a computer, which reworks it to the level needed for those who need to control the man, and the modified information is then reinserted into the brain." These weapons are used against the mind to induce hallucinations, sickness, mutations in human cells, "zombification," or even death. Included in the arsenal are VHF generators, X-rays, ultrasound, and radio waves. Russian army Major I. Chernishev, writing in the military journal Orienteer in February 1997, asserted that "psy" weapons are under development all over the globe. Specific types of weapons noted by Chernishev (not all of which have prototypes) were:

A psychotropic generator, which produces a powerful electromagnetic emanation capable of being sent through telephone lines, TV, radio networks, supply pipes, and incandescent lamps.
An autonomous generator, a device that operates in the 10-150 Hertz band, which at the 10-20 Hertz band forms an infrasonic oscillation that is destructive to all living creatures.
A nervous system generator, designed to paralyze the central nervous systems of insects, which could have the same applicability to humans.
Ultrasound emanations, which one institute claims to have developed. Devices using ultrasound emanations are supposedly capable of carrying out bloodless internal operations without leaving a mark on the skin. They can also, according to Chernishev, be used to kill.
Noiseless cassettes. Chernishev claims that the Japanese have developed the ability to place infra-low frequency voice patterns over music, patterns that are detected by the subconscious. Russians claim to be using similar "bombardments" with computer programming to treat alcoholism or smoking.
The 25th-frame effect, alluded to above, a technique wherein each 25th frame of a movie reel or film footage contains a message that is picked up by the subconscious. This technique, if it works, could possibly be used to curb smoking and alcoholism, but it has wider, more sinister applications if used on a TV audience or a computer operator.
Psychotropics, defined as medical preparations used to induce a trance, euphoria, or depression. Referred to as "slow-acting mines," they could be slipped into the food of a politician or into the water supply of an entire city. Symptoms include headaches, noises, voices or commands in the brain, dizziness, pain in the abdominal cavities, cardiac arrhythmia, or even the destruction of the cardiovascular system.
There is confirmation from US researchers that this type of study is going on. Dr. Janet Morris, coauthor of The Warrior's Edge, reportedly went to the Moscow Institute of Psycho correlations in 1991. There she was shown a technique pioneered by the Russian Department of Psycho-Correction at Moscow Medical Academy in which researchers electronically analyze the human mind in order to influence it. They input subliminal command messages, using key words transmitted in "white noise" or music. Using an infra-sound, very low frequency transmission, the acoustic psycho-correction message is transmitted via bone conduction. 13

In summary, Chernishev noted that some of the militarily significant aspects of the "psy" weaponry deserve closer research, including the following nontraditional methods for disrupting the psyche of an individual:

ESP research: determining the properties and condition of objects without ever making contact with them and "reading" peoples' thoughts
Clairvoyance research: observing objects that are located just beyond the world of the visible-used for intelligence purposes
Telepathy research: transmitting thoughts over a distance-used for covert operations
Telekinesis research: actions involving the manipulation of physical objects using thought power, causing them to move or break apart-used against command and control systems, or to disrupt the functioning of weapons of mass destruction
Psychokinesis research: interfering with the thoughts of individuals, on either the strategic or tactical level
While many US scientists undoubtedly question this research, it receives strong support in Moscow. The point to underscore is that individuals in Russia (and other countries as well) believe these means can be used to attack or steal from the data-processing unit of the human body.

Solutsev's research, mentioned above, differs slightly from that of Chernishev. For example, Solntsev is more interested in hardware capabilities, specifically the study of the information-energy source associated with the computer-operator interface. He stresses that if these energy sources can be captured and integrated into the modern computer, the result will be a network worth more than "a simple sum of its components." Other researchers are studying high-frequency generators (those designed to stun the psyche with high frequency waves such as electromagnetic, acoustic, and gravitational); the manipulation or reconstruction of someone's thinking through planned measures such as reflexive control processes; the use of psychotronics, parapsychology, bioenergy, bio fields, and psycho energy; 14 and unspecified "special operations" or anti-ESP training.

The last item is of particular interest. According to a Russian TV broadcast, the strategic rocket forces have begun anti-ESP training to ensure that no outside force can take over command and control functions of the force. That is, they are trying to construct a firewall around the heads of the operators.


At the end of July 1997, planners for Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration '97 "focused on technologies that enhance real-time collaborative planning in a multinational task force of the type used in Bosnia and in Operation Desert Storm. The JWID '97 network, called the Coalition Wide Area Network (CWAN), is the first military network that allows allied nations to participate as full and equal partners." 15 The demonstration in effect was a trade fair for private companies to demonstrate their goods; defense ministries got to decide where and how to spend their money wiser, in many cases without incurring the cost of prototypes. It is a good example of doing business better with less. Technologies demonstrated included: 16

Soldiers using laptop computers to drag cross-hairs over maps to call in air strikes
Soldiers carrying beepers and mobile phones rather than guns
Generals tracking movements of every unit, counting the precise number of shells fired around the globe, and inspecting real-time damage inflicted on an enemy, all with multicolored graphics 17

Every account of this exercise emphasized the ability of systems to process data and provides information feedback via the power invested in their microprocessors. The ability to affect or defend the data-processing capability of the human operators of these systems was never mentioned during the exercise; it has received only slight attention during countless exercises over the past several years. The time has come to ask why we appear to be ignoring the operators of our systems. Clearly the information operator, exposed before a vast array of potentially immobilizing weapons, is the weak spot in any nation's military assets. There are few international agreements protecting the individual soldier, and these rely on the good will of the combatants. Some nations, and terrorists of every stripe, don t care about such agreements.

This article has used the term data-processing to demonstrate its importance to ascertaining what so-called information warfare and information operations are all about. Data-processing is the action this nation and others need to protect. Information is nothing more than the output of this activity. As a result, the emphasis on information-related warfare terminology ("information dominance," "information carousel") that has proliferated for a decade does not seem to fit the situation before us. In some cases the battle to affect or protect data-processing elements pits one mechanical system against another. In other cases, mechanical systems may be confronted by the human organism, or vice versa, since humans can usually shut down any mechanical system with the flip of a switch. In reality, the game is about protecting or affecting signals, waves, and impulses that can influence the data-processing elements of systems, computers, or people. We are potentially the biggest victims of information warfare, because we have neglected to protect ourselves.

Our obsession with a "system of systems," "information dominance," and other such terminology is most likely a leading cause of our neglect of the human factor in our theories of information warfare. It is time to change our terminology and our conceptual paradigm. Our terminology is confusing us and sending us in directions that deal primarily with the hardware, software, and communications components of the data-processing spectrum. We need to spend more time researching how to protect the humans in our data management structures. Nothing in those structures can be sustained if our operators have been debilitated by potential adversaries or terrorists who- right now-may be designing the means to disrupt the human component of our carefully constructed notion of a system of systems.



1. I. Chemishev, "Can Rulers Make 'Zombies' and Control the World?" Orienteer, February 1997, pp. 58-62.

2. Douglas Pastemak, "Wonder Weapons," U.S. News and World Report, 7 July 1997, pp. 3846.

3. Ibid., p. 38.

4. FM 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, 30 September 1997, p. 1-82.

5. Joint Pub 3-13.1, Joint Doctrine for Command and Control Warfare (C2W), 7 February 1996, p. v.

6. The American Heritage Dictionary (2d College Ed.; Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), p. 660, definition 4.

7. Denis Snezhnyy, "Cybemetic Battlefield & National Security," Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, No. 10, 15-21 March 1997, p. 2.

8. Victor I. Solntsev, "Information War and Some Aspects of a Computer Operator's Defense," talk given at an Infer Conference in Washington, D.C., September 1996, sponsored by the National Computer Security Association. Information in this section is based on notes from Dr. Solntsev's talk.

9. Pastemak, p. 40.

10. Ibid., pp. 40-46.

11. Ibid.

12. Larry Dodgen, "Nonlethal Weapons," U.S. News and World Report, 4 August 1997, p. 5.

13. "Background on the Aviary," Nexus Magazine, downloaded from the Internet on 13 July 1997 from , p.7.

14. Aleksandr Cherkasov, "The Front Where Shots Aren't Fired," Orienteer, May 1995, p. 45. This article was based on information in the foreign and Russian press, according to the author, making it impossible to pinpoint what his source was for this reference.

15. Bob Brewin, "DOD looks for IT 'golden nuggets,"' Federal Computer Week, 28 July 1997, p. 31, as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4 August 1997, p. B 17.

16. Oliver August, "Zap! Hard day at the office for NATO's laptop warriors," The Times, 28 July 1997, as taken from the Earlybird Supplement, 4 August 1997, p. B 16. 

17. Ibid.
The Austrian School Deception: Why the Austrian School of Economics would result in Global Genocide
By Geoff Topp
Currency - A means of EXCHANGE that represents the currency's underlying economy and its ability to produce, transport and sell productive goods domestically and to other Nations.
"It must be stated, at this point in this report, that any actual collapse of the U.S. dollar would set off an immediate, global chain-reaction, sending the entire planet into a collapse from which, unless we act now to prevent this, civilization would not recover for a long time to come. Thus, there is no way in which a system which proposes to exclude the U.S. dollar, could survive even during the very short term. That is to emphasize, that if the U.S. dollar ceases to maintain approximate parity among the principal national economies within the world system, the collapse in value of the outstanding U.S.-denominated obligations, would plunge every part of the planet into a virtually immediate general breakdown-crisis, into a prolonged new dark age from which few among today’s national cultures, and only a relatively small minority of the population of the world would survive in the end....
....It must be stressed, as I shall make clear in the course of this report, that without the presumption that that mass of presently existing dollar-denominated debt is fungible, we have reached the point of a potential, global hyperinflationary explosion (or, simply a general collapse of the entirety of the present world system). That means that an immediate collapse of the perceived value of the dollar itself would trigger a general, and quasi-permanent, physical-economic, chain-reaction form of breakdown of every national economy of the world, that occurring in the modality of a more or less simultaneous implosion of the physical economy and culture of every people of the world..."
- Lyndon LaRouche - A British, Malthusian Swindle: A NEW WORLD CURRENCY AS FRAUD
We are currently in the worst economic breakdown crisis in the history of humanity, and a worrisome grassroots movement of people who have been utterly brainwashed by the Austrian School of Economics, which is nothing more than a cult because there is never any compromising with the followers of this school. If it isn't their way, it's wrong. The Austrian school has been equated with the only solution to provide what they euphemistically call "Free Markets" and this is a lie.
Due to this grassroots movement of brainwashed people, the issue must be raised that the Foundations of the Austrian School of Economics are 100% distortions, lies and trickery. The fact of the matter is, if Austrian methodology is imposed on the people of the world it will result in a massive and sudden drop in population levels and the return to what some would call, the Stone Age. The primary flaw in this school is that it does not take into account that a physical economy is primarily based on science and not mathematics. If you use mathematics for all economic theory, you are eliminating something called Dynamics. Dynamics can occur in population levels, events (wars, disasters), or even orchestrated economic breakdowns such as the one we are currently witnessing. The Austrian response to what we are currently experiencing is, "This is a correction" - on the contrary, this is an Orchestration via the privatized issuance of money, designed to de-populate the planet. The Austrian Solution, allow the system to collapse and de-populate the planet.
In this thread, I will attack the primary foundations of the Austrian School thereby proving them to be falsehoods with factual information and thinking.
I. The GOLD STANDARD, Monetarism, and ignoring the importance of Productive Labor

Gold Standard Debunked

II. The Government Must NEVER INTERVENE IN or REGULATE the Economy
                     Abraham Lincoln's Greenback System
                  Synarchy Against America
III. The PHYSICAL ECONOMY and Infrastructure Deficit
A Physical Economy is a Nations Underlying Infrastructure, which allows trade, transport and commerce to occur. A Nations Economic Infrastructure, or "Physical Economy", is scientific structures and innovations that spur the Private Sector. It is important to note, that a Nations Economic Infrastructure directly reflects the needs of its POPULATION LEVELS. Without a modernized infrastructure, The Nation’s economy will not function without a sudden and dramatic DROP in Population Levels to facilitate the Infrastructure Deficit. People neglect to even mention the word PHYSICAL ECONOMY when talking about economics, specifically so called 'Economists' from the Austrian School, and other lunatics from Princeton, Harvard, Yale and the like. WHY is this? Because they have either been Brainwashed or they are Malthusians (Population Reductionists). In our current situation, we have such a massive Infrastructure deficit that the entire Physical Economy is utterly falling apart. Our Railways are 50-100 years old, our bridges are literally FALLING DOWN!, we have a lack of Energy Output PER Population Density (CAPITA) which drives energy prices up (Thus driving the price of doing business up), Hospitals closing/falling apart, a Dwindling supply of CLEAN WATER and a general lack of modernized infrastructure required for any civilization to function with a decent standard of living. What drives all of these things? ENERGY in the form of POWER PLANTS.
The Astounding High Cost of `Free' Energy
Nuclear for Fuel and Water
What is Infrastructure?
What do all of these things have in common?
Maglev: Transport Mode For the 21st Century
New Cargo Ships Float on Air, Not Water
Waterways, Water Systems, Sewage Systems & Dams
IV. Forecasting, The United States system, Presidents and Leaders that utilized it
End Wall Street bankers rule - End the derivatives depression
Webster Tarpley: End the Fed
By Webster G. Tarpley
Next World TV
Norway’s Eco Prison
Detax Canada
"Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges"
"(The more corrupt the state, the more numerous the laws)"
Cornelius Tacitus (55-117 A.D.)

When you see that in order to produce, you need to
obtain permission from men who produce nothing -
When you see that money is flowing to those
who deal, not in goods, but in favors 
When you see that men get richer by graft and
by pull than by work, and your laws don’t
protect you against them, but protect
them against you –
When you see corruption being rewarded and
honesty becoming a self-sacrifice –
You may know that your society is doomed.
--- Ayn Rand: Atlas Shrugged (1957)
The Anti Communitarian Manifesto | 2020: Our Common Destiny
An Objection to Communitarianism
The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century:

 ICT as a change agent for education
Ron Oliver
Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia
Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become
commonplace entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of
ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of
endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have
a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields. Education is a
very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated
with strong teachers having high degrees of personal contact with learners. The use
of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centred learning settings and often
this creates some tensions for some teachers and students. But with the world moving
rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming
more and more important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in
the 21st century. This paper highlights the various impacts of ICT on contemporary
higher education and explores potential future developments. The paper argues the
role of ICT in transforming teaching and learning and seeks to explore how this will
impact on the way programs will be offered and delivered in the universities and
colleges of the future.
Keywords: Online learning, constructivism, higher education
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a force that has changed many aspects of the
way we live. If one was to compare such fields as medicine, tourism, travel, business, law,
banking, engineering and architecture, the impact of ICT across the past two or three decades has
been enormous. The way these fields operate today is vastly different from the ways they
operated in the past. But when one looks at education, there seems to have been an uncanny lack
of influence and far less change than other fields have experienced. A number of people have
attempted to explore this lack of activity and influence (eg. Soloway and Prior, 1996; Collis,
There have been a number of factors impeding the wholesale uptake of ICT in education across
all sectors. These have included such factors as a lack of funding to support the purchase of the
technology, a lack of training among established teaching practitioners, a lack of motivation and
need among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools (Starr, 2001). But in recent times, factors
have emerged which have strengthened and encouraged moves to adopt ICTs into classrooms and
learning settings. These have included a growing need to explore efficiencies in terms of program delivery, the opportunities for flexible delivery provided by ICTs (eg. Oliver & Short,
1997); the capacity of technology to provide support for customized educational programs to
meet the needs of individual learners (eg. Kennedy & McNaught, 1997); and the growing use of
the Internet and WWW as tools for information access and communication (eg. Oliver & Towers,
As we move into the 21st century, these factors and many others are bringing strong forces to bear
on the adoption of ICTs in education and contemporary trends suggest we will soon see large
scale changes in the way education is planned and delivered as a consequence of the
opportunities and affordances of ICT. This paper seeks to explore the likely changes we will see
in education as ICT acts as a powerful agent to change many of the educational practices to
which we have become accustomed. In particular, the paper will explore the impact both current
and emerging information and communication technologies will be likely to have in coming
years on what is learned, when and where learning will take place and how the learning will
The impact of ICT on what is learned
Conventional teaching has emphasized content. For many years course have been written around
textbooks. Teachers have taught through lectures and presentations interspersed with tutorials
and learning activities designed to consolidate and rehearse the content. Contemporary settings
are now favouring curricula that promote competency and performance. Curricula are starting to
emphasize capabilities and to be concerned more with how the information will be used than with
what the information is.
a. competency and performance-based curricula
The moves to competency and performance-based curricula are well supported and encouraged
by emerging instructional technologies (eg. Stephenson, 2001). Such curricula tend to require:
· access to a variety of information sources;
· access to a variety of information forms and types;
· student-centred learning settings based on information access and inquiry;
· learning environments centred on problem-centred and inquiry-based activities;
· authentic settings and examples; and
· teachers as coaches and mentors rather than content experts.
Contemporary ICTs are able to provide strong support for all these requirements and there are
now many outstanding examples of world class settings for competency and performance-based
curricula that make sound use of the affordances of these technologies (eg. Oliver, 2000). For
many years, teachers wishing to adopt such curricula have been limited by their resources and
tools but with the proliferation and widespread availability of contemporary ICTs, many
restrictions and impediments of the past have been removed. And new technologies will
continue to drive these forms of learning further. As students and teachers gain access to higher
bandwidths, more direct forms of communication and access to sharable resources, the capability
to support these quality learning settings will continue to grow.
 b. information literacy
Another way in which emerging ICTs are impacting on the content of education curricula stems
from the ways in which ICTs are dominating so much of contemporary life and work. Already
there has emerged a need for educational institutions to ensure that graduates are able to display
appropriate levels of information literacy, “the capacity to identify and issue and then to identify,
locate and evaluate relevant information in order to engage with it or to solve a problem arising
from it” (McCausland, Wache & Berk, 1999, p.2). The drive to promote such developments
stems from general moves among institutions to ensure their graduates demonstrate not only
skills and knowledge in their subject domains but also general attributes and generic skills.
Traditionally generic skills have involved such capabilities as an ability to reason formally, to
solve problems, to communicate effectively, to be able to negotiate outcomes, to manage time,
project management, and collaboration and teamwork skills. The growing use of ICTs as tools of
everyday life have seen the pool of generic skills expanded in recent years to include information
literacy and it is highly probable that future developments and technology applications will see
this set of skills growing even more.
The impact of ICT on how students learn
Just as technology is influencing and supporting what is being learned in schools and universities,
so too is it supporting changes to the way students are learning. Moves from content-centred
curricula to competency-based curricula are associated with moves away from teacher-centred
forms of delivery to student-centred forms. Through technology-facilitated approaches,
contemporary learning settings now encourage students to take responsibility for their own
learning .In the past students have become very comfortable to learning through transmissive
modes. Students have been trained to let others present to them the information that forms the
curriculum. The growing use of ICT as an instructional medium is changing and will likely
continue to change many of the strategies employed by both teachers and students in the learning
process. The following sections describe particular forms of learning that are gaining
prominence in universities and schools worldwide.
a. Student-centred learning
Technology has the capacity to promote and encourage the transformation of education from a
very teacher directed enterprise to one which supports more student-centred models. Evidence of
this today is manifested in:
· The proliferation of capability, competency and outcomes focused curricula
· Moves towards problem-based learning
· Increased use of the Web as an information source, Internet users are able to choose the
experts from whom they will learn
The use of ICT in educational settings, by itself acts as a catalyst for change in this domain. ICTs
by their very nature are tools that encourage and support independent learning. Students using
ICTs for learning purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more
students use computers as information sources and cognitive tools (eg. Reeves & Jonassen,
1996), the influence of the technology on supporting how students learn will continue to increase.
b. Supporting knowledge construction
The emergence of ICTs as learning technologies has coincided with a growing awareness and
recognition of alternative theories for learning. The theories of learning that hold the greatest
sway today are those based on constructivist principles (eg. Duffy & Cunningham, 1996). These
principles posit that learning is achieved by the active construction of knowledge supported by
various perspectives within meaningful contexts. In constructivist theories, social interactions
are seen to play a critical role in the processes of learning and cognition (eg. Vygotsky, 1978).
In the past, the conventional process of teaching has revolved around teachers planning and
leading students through a series of instructional sequences to achieve a desired learning
outcome. Typically these forms of teaching have revolved around the planned transmission of a
body of knowledge followed by some forms of interaction with the content as a means to
consolidate the knowledge acquisition. Contemporary learning theory is based on the notion that
learning is an active process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring knowledge and that
instruction is the process by which this knowledge construction is supported rather than a process
of knowledge transmission (Duffy & Cunningham, 1996).
The strengths of constructivism lie in its emphasis on learning as a process of personal
understanding and the development of meaning in ways which are active and interpretative. In
this domain learning is viewed as the construction of meaning rather than as the memorisation of
facts (eg. Lebow, 1993; Jonassen & Reeves, 1996). Learning approaches using contemporary
ICTs provide many opportunities for constructivist learning through their provision and support
for resource-based, student centered settings and by enabling learning to be related to context and
to practice (eg. Berge, 1998; Barron, 1998). As mentioned previously, any use of ICT in learning
settings can act to support various aspects of knowledge construction and as more and more
students employ ICTs in their learning processes, the more pronounced the impact of this will
The impact of ICT on when and where students learn
In the past educational institutions have provided little choice for students in terms of the method
and manner in which programs have been delivered. Students have typically been forced to
accept what has been delivered and institutions have tended to be quite staid and traditional in
terms of the delivery of their programs. ICT applications provide many options and choices and
many institutions are now creating competitive edges for themselves through the choices they are
offering students. These choices extend from when students can choose to learn to where they
they learn.
a. any place learning
The concept of flexibility in the delivery place of educational programs is not new (eg. Moore &
Kearsley, 1996). Educational institutions have been offering programs at a distance for many
years and there has been a vast amount of research and development associated with establishing
effective practices and procedures in off-campus teaching and learning. Use of the technology,
however, has extended the scope of this activity and whereas previously off-campus delivery was
an option for students who were unable to attend campuses, today, many more students are able
to make this choice through technology-facilitated learning settings. The scope and extent of this
activity is demonstrated in some of the examples below.
· In many instances traditional classroom learning has given way to learning in work-based
settings with students able to access courses and programs from their workplace. The
advantages of education and training at the point of need relate not only to convenience but
include cost savings associated with travel and time away from work, and also situation and
application of the learning activities within relevant and meaningful contexts.
· The communications capabilities of modern technologies provide opportunities for many
learners to enroll in courses offered by external institutions rather than those situated locally.
These opportunities provide such advantages as extended course offerings and eclectic class
cohorts comprised of students of differing backgrounds, cultures and perspectives.
· The freedoms of choice provided by programs that can be accessed at any place are also
supporting the delivery of programs with units and courses from a variety of institutions,
There are now countless ways for students completing undergraduate degrees for example, to
study units for a single degree, through a number of different institutions, an activity that
provides considerable diversity and choice for students in the programs they complete.
b. anytime learning
In concert with geographical flexibility, technology-facilitated educational programs also remove
many of the temporal constraints that face learners with special needs (eg. Moore & Kearsley,
1996). Students are starting to appreciate the capability to undertake education anywhere,
anytime and any place. This flexibility has heightened the availability of just-in-time learning
and provided learning opportunities for many more learners who previously were constrained by
other commitments (eg. Young, 2002).
· Through online technologies learning has become an activity that is no longer set within
programmed schedules and slots. Learners are free to participate in learning activities when
time permits and these freedoms have greatly increased the opportunities for many students to
participate in formal programs.
· The wide variety of technologies that support learning are able to provide asynchronous
supports for learning so that the need for real-time participation can be avoided while the
advantages of communication and collaboration with other learners is retained.
· As well as learning at anytime, teachers are also finding the capabilities of teaching at any
time to be opportunistic and able to be used to advantage. Mobile technologies and seamless
communications technologies support 24x7 teaching and learning. Choosing how much time
will be used within the 24x7 envelope and what periods of time are challenges that will face
the educators of the future (eg. Young, 2002).
The continued and increased use of ICTs in education in years to come, will serve to increase the
temporal and geographical opportunities that are currently experienced. Advancements in
learning opportunities tend to be held back by the ICT capabilities of the lowest common
denominator, namely the students with the least access to ICT. As ICT access increases among
students so too will these opportunities.
Emerging Issues
A number of other issues have emerged from the uptake of technology whose impacts have yet to
be fully explored. These include changes to the makeup of the teacher pool, changes to the
profile of who are the learners in our courses and paramount in all of this, changes in the costing
and economics of course delivery.
a. expanding the pool of teachers
In the past, the role of teacher in an educational institution was a role given to only highly
qualified people. With technology-facilitated learning, there are now opportunities to extend the
teaching pool beyond this specialist set to include many more people. The changing role of the
teacher has seen increased opportunities for others to participate in the process including
workplace trainers, mentors, specialists from the workplace and others. Through the affordances
and capabilities of technology, today we have a much expanded pool of teachers with varying
roles able to provide support for learners in a variety of flexible settings. This trend seems set to
continue and to grow with new ICT developments and applications. And within this changed
pool of teachers will come changed responsibilities and skill sets for future teaching involving
high levels of ICT and the need for more facilitative than didactic teaching roles (eg. Littlejohn et
al., 2002).
b. expanding the pool of students
In the past, education has been a privilege and an opportunity that often was unavailable to many
students whose situation did not fit the mainstream. Through the flexibilities provided by
technology, many students who previously were unable to participate in educational activities are
now finding opportunities to do so. The pool of students is changing and will continue to change
as more and more people who have a need for education and training are able to take advantage
of the increased opportunities. Interesting opportunities are now being observed among, for
example, school students studying university courses to overcome limitations in their school
programs and workers undertaking courses from their desktops.
c. the cost of education
Traditional thinking has always been that technology-facilitated learning would provide
economies and efficiencies that would see significant reductions in the costs associated with the
delivery of educational programs. The costs would come from the ability to create courses with
fixed establishment costs, for example technology-based courses, and for which there would be
savings in delivery through large scale uptake. We have already seen a number of virtual
universities built around technology delivery alone (eg. Jones International University, The reality is that few institutions have been able to realize these aims for
economy. There appear to have been many underestimated costs in such areas as course
development and course delivery.

The costs associated with the development of high quality technology-facilitated learning
materials are quite high. It has found to be more than a matter of repackaging existing materials
and large scale reengineering has been found to be necessary with large scale costs. Likewise
costs associated with delivery have not been found to diminish as expected. The main reason for
this has been the need to maintain a relatively stable student to staff ratio and the expectation of
students that they will have access to teachers in their courses and programs. Compared to
traditional forms of off-campus learning, technology-facilitated learning has proven to be quite
expensive in all areas of consideration, infrastructure, course development and course delivery.
We may have to brace ourselves for the advantages and affordances which will improve the
quality of education in the near future to also increase components of the cost.
Stakeholders and influences
The ideas that have been discussed in this paper suggest that while ICTs may not have had a large
impact to date, their use will grow to play a significant role in many aspects of the design,
development and delivery of educational programs in the coming years. The various influences
that have been discussed provide examples of an agent that has the capacity to influence
education at all levels and hence to be an agent supporting and encouraging considerable change.
When the future of education is considered in this way, it is interesting to speculate among the
stakeholders, for whom the change will be the greatest. Table 1 lists the principal stakeholders
and suggests how the various issues discussed in the paper might influence each. Clearly the
stakeholders for whom technology would seem to proffer the most influence and change are the
students. So while institutions are pondering how they will be influenced in years to come,
whatever the outcomes, the beneficiaries of the activity and change will be the students. This
would seem to be the outcome everyone would want to see.

Table 1: The influence of ICT on education and its stakeholders
What is learned and how much
How it is learned
When it is learned
From whom it is learned
Who is learning
What it costs
Summary and Conclusions
This paper has sought to explore the role of ICT in education as we progress into the 21st century.
In particular the paper has argued that ICTs have impacted on educational practice in education to
date in quite small ways but that the impact will grow considerably in years to come and that ICT
will become a strong agent for change among many educational practices. Extrapolating current
activities and practices, the continued use and development of ICTs within education will have a strong impact on:
· What is learned;
· How it is learned;
· When and where learning takes place;
· Who is learning and who is teaching.
The upshot of all this activity is that we should see marked improvements in many areas of
educational endeavour. Learning should become more relevant to stakeholders’ needs, learning
outcomes should become more deliberate and targeted, and learning opportunities should
diversity in what is learned and who is learning. At the same time, quality of programs as
measured by fitness for purpose should continue to grow as stakeholder groups find the offerings
matched to their needs and expectations.
To ensure that the opportunities and advantages are realized, it will be important as it is in every
other walk of life to ensure that the educational research and development dollar is sustained so
that education at large can learn from within and that experiences and activities in different
institutions and sectors can inform and guide others without the continual need for re-invention of
the wheel. Once again ICTs serve to provide the means for much of this activity to realize the potential it holds.
Barron, A. (1998). Designing Web-based training. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29(4), 355-371.
Berge, Z. (1998). Guiding principles in Web-based instructional design. Education Media International, 35(2), 72-76.
Collis, B. (2002). Information technologies for education and training. In Adelsberger, H., Collis, B, & Pawlowski,
J. (Eds.) Handbook on Technologies for Information and Training. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Duffy, T., & Cunningham, D. (1996). Constructivism: Implications for the design and delivery of instruction, Handbook of research for educational telecommunications and technology (pp. 170-198).
New York: MacMillan.
Freeman, M. (1997). Flexibility in access, interactions and assessment: The case for web-based teaching programs.
Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 13(1), 23-39.
Jonassen, D. & Reeves, T. (1996). Learning with technology: Using computers as cognitive tools. In D. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research Educational on Educational Communications and Technology (pp 693-719). New York: Macmillan.
Kennedy, D. & McNaught, C. (1997). Design elements for interactive multimedia. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 13(1), 1-22.
Laffey J., Tupper, T. & Musser, D. (1998) A computer-mediated support system for project-based learning.
Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(1), 73-86.
Lebow, D. (1993). Constructivist values for instructional systems design: Five principles toward a new
mindset. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 41(3), 4-16.
Littlejohn, A., Suckling, C., Campbell, L. & McNicol, D. (2002). The amazingly patient tutor: students’ interactions with an online carbohydrate chemistry course. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 313-321.
McCausland, H.,Wache, D. & Berk, M. (1999). Computer literacy; its implications and outcomes. A case study from the Flexible Learning Centre. University of South Australia.
Moore, M. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A Systems View. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Oliver, R. & Short, G. (1996). The Western Australian Telecentres Network: A model for enhancing access to education and training in rural areas. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 2(4), 311-328.
Oliver, R. (2000). Creating Meaningful Contexts for Learning in Web-based Settings. Proceedings of Open Learning
2000. (pp 53-62). Brisbane: Learning Network, Queensland.
Oliver, R. & Towers, S. (2000). Benchmarking ICT literacy in tertiary learning settings. In R. Sims, M. O’Reilly &
S. Sawkins (Eds). Learning to choose: Choosing to learn. Proceedings of the 17th Annual ASCILITE Conference
(pp 381-390). Lismore, NSW: Southern Cross University Press.
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ACM, 39(4), 16-18.
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Stephenson, J., Ed. (2001). Learner-managed learning- an emerging pedagogy for online learning. Teaching and Learning Online: Pedagogies for New Technologies. London, Kogan Page.
Young, J. (2002). The 24-hour professor. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48(38), 31-33.
Copyright ã 2002 <R. Oliver> The authors assign to the organisers of the HE21 Conference a non-exclusive license to use this document for personal use and in courses of instruction, provided that this article is used in full and this copyright statement is reproduced. The authors also grant a non-exclusive license to the organisers of the HE21
Conference to publish this document on CD-ROM within the HE 21 conference proceedings. Any other usage is prohibited without the express permission of the authors.
A History of Christianity
A page-by-page criticism of Paul Johnson's horror story
By Michael Roll
A History of Christianity by Paul Johnson was published in 1976 by Weidenfeld & Nicholson.

"Of all the tyrannies that affect mankind, tyranny in religion is the worst; every other species of tyranny is limited to the world we live in, but this attempts to stride beyond the grave, and seeks to pursue us into eternity." (Thomas Paine)
The Church and the State are established in Great Britain. It is against the law to tell the truth in our schools, on the air waves, and in the press. A handful of religious tyrants, working through the highly efficient religious affairs departments, make sure the academic criticism contained in this booklet never comes to the attention of the people. Great Britain is a religious tyranny, all philosophical thought is censored.
Be warned - If you obtain A History of Christianity from the library, then you will need a very strong stomach, especially when you find out what the priests and their academic allies have done to the trusting minds of little children in order to 'defend their faith' and therefore keep themselves in the manner to which they are accustomed. There is one thing that people who have something to hide fear more than anything else, and that is public opinion. There is only one way to defend a supernatural faith, and that is to make sure the truth is never presented to the masses. Torturing the mind is a far greater crime than torturing the body. Northern Ireland and the Middle East stand as monuments to that statement.
On Synarchy
Read the Declaration
A Common Place, an Uncommon Voice
Sponsored by the American Antiquarian Society in Association with the University of Oklahoma
The Right to Be a Freemason
 Secret Societies and the Power of the Law in the Early Republic
By Kevin Butterfield
Freemasonry and these notions of public and private, legality and illegality, justice and injustice, have crossed paths more than a few times.
 “In Our Hands”
By Joseph Sobran
[Originally published in The Wanderer, June 13, 1996]
  One isn’t supposed to say this, but many people believe that Israel now holds the White House, the Senate, and much of the American media in its hands. This is what is known as an anti-Semitic conspiracy theory.

The odd thing is that it is held by many Israelis. In an essay reprinted in the May 27, 1996, issue of the New York Times Ari Shavit, an Israeli columnist, reflected sorrowfully on the wanton Israeli killing of more than a hundred Lebanese civilians in April. “We killed them out of a certain naive hubris. Believing with absolute certitude that now, with the White House, the Senate, and much of the American media in our hands, the lives of others do not count as much as our own....”

In a single phrase — “in our hands” — Mr. Shavit has lit up the American political landscape like a flash of lightning.

Notice that Mr. Shavit assumes as an obvious fact what we Americans can say publicly only at our own risk. It’s surprising, and refreshing, to find such candor in an American newspaper (though his essay was reprinted from the Israeli paper Ha’aretz).

The prescribed cant on the subject holds that Israel is a “reliable ally” of the United States, despite Israel’s long record of double-dealing against this country, ranging from the killing of American sailors to constant espionage and technology theft. The word ally implies that the relationship exists because it’s in the interests of this country, though Israel’s lobby is clearly devoted to the interests of Israel itself, and it’s childish to suggest otherwise.

You expect that from the Israel lobby; lobbies are lobbies, after all. But it’s unnerving that the White House, the Senate, and much of the American media should be “in our hands,” as Mr. Shavit puts it. Bill Clinton, a lover of peace since his college days, raised no protest when the Israelis drove 400,000 innocent Lebanese out of their homes this year in “retaliation” for rockets launched into Israel (wounding one Israeli) by a faction over whom those 400,000 had no control.

Congress of course, was supine as usual at this latest extravagance of Israeli “defense.” Congress too is “in our hands.”

A recent article in the Washington Post likened the Israel lobby’s power to that of the gun and tobacco lobbies. But there is one enormous difference. Newspapers like the Post aren’t afraid to criticize the gun and tobacco lobbies. They will say forthrightly that those lobbies seek goals that are dangerous for this country. They don’t dare say as much of the Israel lobby.

But much of the press and electronic media are “in our hands” in a more active sense: they supply misleading pro-Israel propaganda in the guise of news and commentary, constantly praising Israeli democracy and ignoring Israel’s mistreatment of its non-Jewish minorities — mistreatment which, if any government inflicted it on a Jewish minority, would earn it the fierce opprobrium of our media.

No decent American would think of reducing American Jews to the status of Palestinians in Israel. The idea is almost absurd. Yet Americans are taxed to subsidize the oppression of Palestinians, on the flimsy pretext that they are helping an “ally” in America’s own self-interest, as if it were in our interest to be hated and despised by the whole Muslim world.

All this is interesting less for what it tells us about Israel than for what it tells us about America. Frank discussion of Israel is permitted in Israel, as Mr. Shavit’s article illustrates. It’s rarely permitted here. Charges of anti-Semitism and a quiet but very effective boycott will be the reward of any journalist who calls attention to his own government’s — and his own profession’s — servitude to Israeli interests.

Very few in America are doing anything to change that sorry state of affairs. Mr. Shavit wrote his article in the desperate hope of turning back his countrymen and his government from a morally and politically perilous course. At least he can hope. It’s harder for us, when our own government isn’t in our hands.

Joseph Sobran
An Outline of the Jewish Conspiracy
Presented in Chaper 19 of Which Way Western Man?
By William G. Simpson
Section 1. Is There A Jewish Race?
Section 2. The Jewish Money System
Section 3. Control of a Nation’s Money Should Be in the Hands of Its Government
Section 4. The Bank “of England”
Section 5. The Federal Reserve System
Section 6. Depressions Deliberately Created to Plunder the People
Section 7. What the Federal Reserve is Ultimately Driving At
Section 8. The Only Sound “Backing” for a Money System
Section 9. The Origin of the Hoax of the Gold Standard
Section 10. Debt as a Means of Enslavement
Section 11. An Outline of a Money System at Once Honest and Workable
Section 12. Jewish Control of the Means for Shaping Public Opinion
Section 13. Jewish Limitations: Everlastingly They are but Middlemen
Section 14. The Doubtful Loyalty of the Jews
Section 15. The Talmud, Full of Hate for Gentiles, the Admitted Basis of All Jewish Life
Section 16. “The Jews Have Muzzled the Non-Jew Press”
Section 17. The Jews—the Supreme Masters of the “Big Lie Technique”
Section 18. The Jews’ Record—from the Mouths of Jews
Section 19. The Jews’ Record—from the Gentile Point of View
Section 20. The Author’s Own Conclusions about the Jews’ Record
Section 21. The English Revolution
Section 22. The French Revolution
Section 23. The Rise of the House of Rothschild
Section 24. The Industrial Revolution
Section 25. The American Civil War
Section 26. The First World War
Section 27. The Balfour Declaration
Section 28. The Russian Revolution of November, 1917
Section 29. The Second World War
Section 30. Hitler’s Purpose—the Regeneration of his People
Section 31. Hitler’s Record
Section 32. The International Money Power Declares War on Hitler
Section 33. The Jews’ Part in the War
Section 34. The Aftermath
Section 35. The Hoax of “The Cold War”
Section 36. Our Invisible Government
Section 37. The Line-Up of Forces in the Near East
Section 38. The Solution of the Jewish Problem
Section 39. The Problem of Ourselves
Section 40. Our Hour of Deadly Peril
Section 41. The Crucial Importance of Race
Section 42. “Pure Race” is Something That Can Be and Must Be Created
- - - - - - - - - Footnotes
Appendix 1. For Research into the Deception in Our Money System
Appendix 2. For Introduction to the Jewish Question
Appendix 3. From the English paper The Week, May 17, 1933
Appendix 4. Alleged Soviet Anti-Semitism

Appendix 5. In Reply to Dr. Antony Sutton's Rejection of the Idea of a Jewish Conspiracy
Appendix 6. The Abandonment of the Code of civilized Warfare
Appendix 7. The Lie of the Six Million
The Jews
“The question of the Jews and their influence on the world past and present, cuts to the
root of all things, and should be discussed by every honest thinker, however bristling with
difficulties it is, however complex the subject as well as the individuals of this race may
be . . .
“We who have posed as the saviours of the world, we who have even boasted of having
given it ‘the’ Saviour, we are today nothing else than the world’s seducers, its destroyers,
its incendiaries, its executioners.”
- Dr. Oscar Levy

Because of the peculiar nature of the problem with which the Jews confront us, I must
begin with a somewhat extended explanation.

The presence of the Jew in our society, like that of the Negro, is open to objection simply
because his alien-ness destroys the homogeneity and the solidarity that are so essential to
our survival, and even to our welfare as a people and to our historical significance. But
the objection goes further than this. It is concentrated in the Jews’ peculiar psychology
and character, and the place they have come to occupy in modern power politics.
How many Jews there are in the United States does not immediately concern me. It has
never been by their numbers that the Jews have become a problem. But that they do
constitute a problem of extreme gravity for our people was first brought to my attention
about forty years ago by two of the most distinguished and high-minded men it has ever
been my privilege to know. One of them was American, the other English. My talks with
them, which proved so disturbing, came four years apart. This was away back in the
Thirties. Yet for something like ten years I did nothing about the matter—largely, I think,
because I did not know where or how to find reliable information about it. But gradually,
as the years wore into the Forties and we lived through the Second World War, very
disturbing allegations from seemingly authoritative sources reached me in such quantity
that I felt compelled, as a responsible citizen, to put other work aside until, by unbiased,
fearless and thorough investigation, I could decide whether all the fuss about a Jewish
peril was only the bigoted and contemptible “anti-Semitism” that the Jews charged us
with, or whether there was in fact something to it, and if so, how much. In consequence,
the exploration of the Jewish question became my chief occupation for some years, and
for a quarter of a century it has never ceased to be one of my most anxious concerns. In
the early Fifties, I began to set down my findings, which I have since many times revised
and expanded. It now constitutes quite a mass of material.

This array of facts, naturally, is not to be presented in any chapter. All I can do here is to
sketch the conclusions that they have compelled me to draw, with enough supporting
evidence, I hope, to disturb my reader into making an investigation of his own. However,
though I cannot here present my supporting evidence in full, I can assure my reader that I
have it ready. And in Appendix II to this chapter, I will supply a select list of books on
the Jewish Question, the open-minded reading of which, I believe, should convince any
intelligent, responsible White gentile that this is a matter that he dare not ignore.
Kabbalah Initiation
The Protocols of Gilad Atzmon
Florence and the Machine feed a bourgeois fantasy of 'folksiness'
FATM's popularity reveals how the liberal middle classes have abandoned true counterculture for escapist vintage chic
“Florence and the Machine is Lady Gaga for people with humanities degrees…”
Theodor Adorno
Illuminations: The Critical Theory Project
"What the philosophers once knew as life has become the sphere of private existence and now mere consumption, dragged along as an appendage of the process of material production, without autonomy or substance of its own. He or she who wishes to know the truth about life in its immediacy must scrutinize its estranged form, the objective powers that determine individual existence even in its most hidden recesses."
--- T.W. Adorno
The Illuminations web project is designed to be a resource for students and researchers who are interested in the Critical Theory project. Firmly based in the Frankfurt School tradition this site's purpose is to not only promote the classics of Critical Theory but also to chart out the new trajectories that have advanced its thought while continuing the project of a critical theory of society. The critical interventions made by the theorists represented here have made significant impacts in fields such as philosophy, cultural studies, political theory, science and technology studies, feminist theory, critical theory of race, critical media studies, education, and environmental theory. This site will thus serve as an indispensable resource for students and researchers who are working in or becoming acquainted with the field of social theory.
Food Navigator: The Tip of the Spyberg… Is Your Boardroom Bugged?
Food Production Daily: Challenges and Benefits of Implementing a Sustainable Supply Chain
NutraIngredients: Product News: Probiotics and Prebiotics
The Adventures of Artifice in Languageland
The Devil Within: Money and Logos
Is there a relationship between the birth of the rational mentality and the development of commercial economy? In the 7th century B.C.E., a whole series of tightly connected social changes took place in the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor. It is precisely during this epoch that the rational mentality arose, at the time when maritime commercial culture began to experience its first great development.
 In a short period of time, things moved from tribal social structures and ancient monarchy to the political form typical of the Greek city-states. The kinship and religious ties of the landed aristocracy gave way to a new kind of social ties in which the individual was valued above all on the basis of his property: luxury very quickly becomes a political institution. The same aristocrats who had formerly based their power on land ownership and warrior virtue began to acquire wealth first by rigging pirate ships for sea robbery and later by rigging merchant ships for commerce itself. The aristocrat started to invest his property on the sea.
 A new form of domination arose, a plutocratic aristocracy that began to concentrate political power and the administration of justice in itself. The wealth that came from the land allowed it to arm merchant ships which reached the farthest ports of the Mediterranean. The usurious loan was developed to a high degree increasingly immiserating the peasant class. Class struggle developed between the peasants and the aristocrats. A third class soon intervened as an intermediary, namely, the merchant class. They were the ancient demiurges, that is to say, the first master artisans who were accustomed to taking their work from city to city, who acquired power through commerce. They were the cadets of the noble class who had been excluded from hereditary rights and therefore began to acquire wealth on the sea. In short, it was about a new wealthy class that rose with the development of maritime commerce. This new class at times sided with the aristocracy and at times with the people, increasing or moderating the class conflicts in accordance with its own interests.
 The dominant regime is thus political particularism, the spirit of competition taken to the highest degree, the domination of the census and of wealth. The ruling oligarchy was forced to take an ever-increasing interest in the political events of the city. It gradually lost its nobility and superiority of descent as personal wealth increased; the importance of family and birth diminished in the face of the individual and of money. Class struggles sharpened to such a degree, particularly in the commercially wealthiest cities, that at a certain point a new form of mediation intervened in order to annul it: legislation. Written law (nomos) to which citizens were subject and to which they could turn in order to demand their rights became necessary. The right is separated from politics. This is a fact of enormous historical importance that was developed to the fullest extent not so much in the Greek colonies of Asia Minor as in the western colonies of the Greater Greece. We will see that it was really here that mathematical thought developed and that the philosophical school that had Parmenides as its greatest representative arose.
The Rise of Silas Lapham: A Story of Self-Identity, Self-Respect, and Morality
 By Edward W. Younkins
 Dr. Edward W. Younkins is a Professor of Accountancy and Business Administration at Wheeling Jesuit University in West Virginia.
          William Dean Howells’s The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) was the first important realistic novel to focus on an American businessman. The author intended his highly regarded novel to provide moral education to readers. Early in the novel Howells presents an essential business-related moral dilemma that has repercussions throughout the entire story. The main story depicts a man’s moral rise while his prosperity is declining.
          Silas Lapham is a man from a humble background who has become rich through hard work. The story is set in a time period when many old fortunes were diminishing and when the newly rich were frequently wealthier than the old rich. Silas is a nouveaux riche, post-civil war millionaire who, along with his family, attempts to become part of Boston society. He is determined to place his wife and daughter among that city’s aristocracy. The novel’s secondary but interrelated plot chronicles his family’s awkward attempts to gain acceptance into cultured society.
          The book begins with reporter Bartley Hubbard interviewing Silas for an article on the businessmen of Boston. The self-assured Lapham is being profiled in this feature article and dictates his biography to the newspaper interviewer. When the upper class Hubbard returns home, he ridicules Lapham for his crudeness, lack of breeding, and simple upbringing. Hubbard’s wife asks him not to make fun of the uncultured and inarticulate Lapham in the piece he is writing.
          Through this interview, the reader learns a great deal about Lapham’s past. Silas had been a poor child with a solid Christian background. He was raised on a family farm in rural northern Vermont near the Canadian border. His mother taught him the virtues of the Old Testament and Poor Richard’s Almanac. In 1835 Silas’s father, Nehemiah, discovered a mineral paint deposit. Nehemiah experimented with the paint and thought it had the potential to be profitable but unfortunately, at that time, people could not afford to paint their houses.
          Silas travelled to the West as a young man, but returned to Vermont. He first worked in a sawmill and then as a stableman at a hotel. After his parents died, Silas moved to Lumberville where he drove a stage, bought and managed the stage line, and met and married the village schoolteacher, Persis. Silas married his ideal woman. Throughout the novel, he displays respect and high regard for all the women in his life: his mother, his wife, and later his intelligent daughter, Penelope, and his beautiful daughter, Irene. He is proud of them all.
"Early in the novel Howells presents an essential business-related moral dilemma that has repercussions throughout the entire story. The main story depicts a man’s moral rise while his prosperity is declining."
Republic of Debt:
Bankruptcy in the Age of American Independence
By Bruce H. Mann
White Paper: The American Illusion
By John & Pete
Request a copy
F. W. Maitland: State, Trust and Corporation
Diplomacy By Deception: An Account of the Treasonous Conduct By the Governments of Great Britain and the United States
By Dr. John Coleman
The Jews as a Chosen People: Tradition and Transformation
By S. Leyla Gurkan
NONZERO: The Logic of Human Destiny
By Robert Wright
Spinoza on Human Freedom:
Reason, Autonomy and the Good Life
By Matthew J. Kisner