Saturday, January 14, 2012

Zombie Apocalypse

Social Media: Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse
The following was originally posted on CDC Public Health Matters Blog on May 16th, 2011 by Ali S. Khan.
There are all kinds of emergencies out there that we can prepare for. Take a zombie apocalypse for example. That’s right; I said z-o-m-b-i-e a-p-o-c-a-l-y-p-s-e. You may laugh now, but when it happens you’ll be happy you read this, and hey, maybe you’ll even learn a thing or two about how to prepare for a real emergency.

A Brief History of Zombies

We’ve all seen at least one movie about flesh-eating zombies taking over (my personal favorite is Resident EvilExternal Web Site Icon.), but where do zombies come from and why do they love eating brains so much? The word zombie comes from Haitian and New Orleans voodoo origins. Although its meaning has changed slightly over the years, it refers to a human corpse mysteriously reanimated to serve the undead. Through ancient voodoo and folk-lore traditions, shows like the Walking Dead were born.

  In movies, shows, and literature, zombies are often depicted as being created by an infectious virus, which is passed on via bites and contact with bodily fluids. Harvard psychiatrist Steven Scholzman wrote a (fictional) medical paper on the zombies presented in Night of the Living Dead and refers to the condition as Ataxic Neurodegenerative Satiety Deficiency Syndrome caused by an infectious agent. The Zombie Survival Guide identifies the cause of zombies as a virus called solanum. Other zombie origins shown in films include radiation from a destroyed NASA Venus probe (as in Night of the Living Dead), as well as mutations of existing conditions such as prions, mad-cow disease, measles and rabies.

The rise of zombies in pop culture has given credence to the idea that a zombie apocalypse could happen. In such a scenario zombies would take over entire countries, roaming city streets eating anything living that got in their way. The proliferation of this idea has led many people to wonder “How do I prepare for a zombie apocalypse?”

Well, we’re here to answer that question for you, and hopefully share a few tips about preparing for real emergencies too!

Better Safe than Sorry

So what do you need to do before zombies…or hurricanes or pandemics for example, actually happen? First of all, you should have an emergency kit in your house. This includes things like water, food, and other supplies to get you through the first couple of days before you can locate a zombie-free refugee camp (or in the event of a natural disaster, it will buy you some time until you are able to make your way to an evacuation shelter or utility lines are restored). Below are a few items you should include in your kit, for a full list visit the CDC Emergency page.

  • Water (1 gallon per person per day)
  • Food (stock up on non-perishable items that you eat regularly)
  • Medications (this includes prescription and non-prescription meds)
  • Tools and Supplies (utility knife, duct tape, battery powered radio, etc.)
  • Sanitation and Hygiene (household bleach, soap, towels, etc.)
  • Clothing and Bedding (a change of clothes for each family member and blankets)
  • Important documents (copies of your driver’s license, passport, and birth certificate to name a few)
  • First Aid supplies (although you’re a goner if a zombie bites you, you can use these supplies to treat basic cuts and lacerations that you might get during a tornado or hurricane)
Once you’ve made your emergency kit, you should sit down with your family and come up with an emergency plan. This includes where you would go and who you would call if zombies started appearing outside your door step. You can also implement this plan if there is a flood, earthquake, or other emergency.

  1. Identify the types of emergencies that are possible in your area. Besides a zombie apocalypse, this may include floods, tornadoes, or earthquakes. If you are unsure contact your local Red Cross chapter for more information.
  2. Pick a meeting place for your family to regroup in case zombies invade your home…or your town evacuates because of a hurricane. Pick one place right outside your home for sudden emergencies and one place outside of your neighborhood in case you are unable to return home right away.
  3. Identify your emergency contacts. Make a list of local contacts like the police, fire department, and your local zombie response team. Also identify an out-of-state contact that you can call during an emergency to let the rest of your family know you are ok.
  4. Plan your evacuation route. When zombies are hungry they won’t stop until they get food (i.e., brains), which means you need to get out of town fast! Plan where you would go and multiple routes you would take ahead of time so that the flesh eaters don’t have a chance! This is also helpful when natural disasters strike and you have to take shelter fast.

Never Fear – CDC is Ready

If zombies did start roaming the streets, CDC would conduct an investigation much like any other disease outbreak. CDC would provide technical assistance to cities, states, or international partners dealing with a zombie infestation. This assistance might include consultation, lab testing and analysis, patient management and care, tracking of contacts, and infection control (including isolation and quarantine). It’s likely that an investigation of this scenario would seek to accomplish several goals: determine the cause of the illness, the source of the infection/virus/toxin, learn how it is transmitted and how readily it is spread, how to break the cycle of transmission and thus prevent further cases, and how patients can best be treated. Not only would scientists be working to identify the cause and cure of the zombie outbreak, but CDC and other federal agencies would send medical teams and first responders to help those in affected areas (I will be volunteering the young nameless disease detectives for the field work).
To learn more about what CDC does to prepare for and respond to emergencies of all kinds, visit:

To learn more about how you can prepare for and stay safe during an emergency visit:

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The word zombie refers to the ‘living dead’. In folklore zombies are portrayed as innocent victims who are raised in a comatose trance from their graves by malevolent sorcerers, and led to distant farms or villages where they toil indefinitely as slaves. Zombies are recognized by their docile nature, by their glassy empty eyes, and by the evident absence of will, memory, and emotion. Part of their souls may also be captured by the sorcerers. Zombies can only return to the world of the living upon the death of their masters. Accounts are sometimes cited of actual people who have undergone this ordeal, were declared dead, and later turned up at the homes of their kin in various degrees of health.

Sources indicate that the word is of African origin. The cadaver or spirit of a deceased person is called zumbi in the Bonda language, ndzumbi in Gabon, and nzambi in Kongo. However, the conviction that zombies exist is more widespread. It is encountered not only in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in the Caribbean and in Latin America.

A controversial theory by Wade Davis suggests that there may well be an ethnobiological basis for popular reports of the zombie phenomenon in Haiti. He refers to a case of zombification which had been verified by a team of physicians. In 1962 Clairvus Narcisse was pronounced dead at a hospital, and buried 8 hours later. In 1980 Clairvus reappeared, claiming that he had been made a zombie by his brother because of a land dispute. Davis argues that Clairvus was mistakenly diagnosed as dead, buried alive, and taken from the grave. Among the various preparations of Haitian sorcerers, Davis identified a marine fish containing tetrodotoxin, an extremely potent neurotoxin which induces a complete state of peripheral paralysis and imperceptibly low metabolic levels. He postulates that the Haitian belief in zombies could be based on those rare instances where the individual receives the correct dosage of the poison, is misdiagnosed as dead, and is taken from the grave by a sorcerer. Moreover, Davis argues that zombification is a form of punishment imposed by Bizango secret societies to maintain order in local communities.

Other scholars of Haiti regard the belief in zombies as purely mythical.

From a Marxist perspective zombification — the image of people who have lost their minds and souls and are left only with the ability to work — is explained as symbolic comment on the historical process of colonialism.

Read more:

John Carpenter's They Live (1988)

"What's your problem?"


    1. Apocalypse (Abbr. Apoc.) Bible. The Book of Revelation.
    2. Any of a number of anonymous Jewish or Christian texts from around the second century B.C. to the second century A.D. containing prophetic or symbolic visions, especially of the imminent destruction of the world and the salvation of the righteous.
  1. Great or total devastation; doom: the apocalypse of nuclear war.
  2. A prophetic disclosure; a revelation.
[Middle English Apocalipse, from Late Latin Apocalypsis, from Greek apokalupsis, revelation, Apocalypse, from apokaluptein, to uncover : apo-, apo- + kaluptein, to cover.]

An Apocalypse (Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis; "lifting of the veil" or "revelation") is a disclosure of something hidden from the majority of mankind in an era dominated by falsehood and misconception, i.e. the veil to be lifted. The Apocalypse of John (Greek Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰωάννου) is the Book of Revelation, the last book of the New Testament. By extension, apocalypse can refer to any End Time scenario, or to the end of the world in general.

“The object in life is not to be on the side of the majority, but to escape finding oneself in the ranks of the insane.”

Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121-180)

“Arrival at truth is many-layered… because it requires… the lifting of veils. It requires quietude and introspection. 

Today men speak of evolution… revolution… even devolution. Yet too few speak of involution – looking inside one’s self, or turning inward – that they may look before they leap.”

~Lark In Texas
USA Prepares

Internet Rising

Internet Rising is a labor of love comprising a rapid fire mashup stream of live webcam interviews all conducted within the web sphere.

Internet Rising is a digi-documentary investigating the evolving relationships between the Internet and collective consciousness of humanity.

It provokes many questions about ancient and modern paradoxes of life, its pleasures and pains… and the gray area contrasts in between – but most of all it is meant to be an inspiring conversation starter.

The film’s participants include many profound personalities and key Internet influencers ranging from professors, corporate academics, futurists, researchers, writers, bloggers, media creators, activists, gamers, educators, scientists, artists, innovators – real humans, all of whom provide amazing insights into how our state of the world is changing and transforming via various forces of economic, social, geographic, political, philosophical development… all centered around technology’s transformative and generative power.
American Heritage Dictionary
The study of the cultural, behavioral, and sociological aspects of spatial distances between individuals
[PROX(IMITY) + -emics (as in PHONEMICS).]
Random House Word Menu: categories related to 'proxemics'

Tools, Techniques, Principles, and Practitioners - proxemics: study of human spatial requirements and effects of population density
 •Linguistics and Writing Systems - proxemics: study of varying patterns of physical proximity in interpersonal communication

Proxemics is the study of measurable distances between people as they interact. The term was introduced by anthropologist Edward T. Hall in 1966. The effects of proxemics, according to Hall, can be summarized by the following loose rule:
“Like gravity, the influence of two bodies on each other is inversely proportional not only to the square of their distance but possibly even the cube of the distance between them.”
In animals, Swiss zoologist Heini Hediger had distinguished between flight distance (run boundary), critical distance (attack boundary), personal distance (distance separating members of non-contact species, as a pair of swans), and social distance (intraspecies communication distance). Hall reasoned that, with very few exceptions, flight distance and critical distance have been eliminated in human reactions, and thus interviewed hundreds of people to determine modified criteria for human interactions.
See also
•Body language
 •Environmental psychology
 •Intercultural competence
 •Personal boundaries
 •Spatial empathy
 •T-V distinction

  • Topographic study of a given place, especially the history of a region as indicated by its topography

  • Medicine. The anatomical structure of a specific area or part of the body.

  • Mathematics. The study of the properties of geometric figures or solids that are not changed by homeomorphisms, such as stretching or bending. Donuts and picture frames are topologically equivalent, for example.

  • Computer Science. The arrangement in which the nodes of a LAN are connected to each other.

  • In mathematics, the study of the properties of a geometric object that remains unchanged by deformations such as bending, stretching, or squeezing but not breaking. A sphere is topologically equivalent to a cube because, without breaking them, each can be deformed into the other as if they were made of modeling clay. A sphere is not equivalent to a doughnut, because the former would have to be broken to put a hole in it. Topological concepts and methods underlie much of modern mathematics, and the topological approach has clarified very basic structural concepts in many of its branches.

    See also algebraic topology
    The branch of mathematics that studies the qualitative properties of spaces, as opposed to the more delicate and refined geometric or analytic properties. While there are earlier results that belong to the field, the beginning of the subject as a separate branch of mathematics dates to the work of H. Poincaré during 1895–1904. The ideas and results of topology have a central place in mathematics, with connections to almost all the other areas of the subject.
    The difference between topological and geometric properties is illustrated by the example of a space with three separate pieces. The exact shapes of the pieces constitute a geometric property of the space, and the study of these shapes is in the domain of differential geometry, but the fact that the space has three separate pieces is a qualitative or topological property. As another example, if a round sphere is deformed to be pear-shaped (or even more irregularly shaped, like the surface of the Earth), then the geometric notions of distance, straight line, and angle are changed, but the topological properties of the surface are left unchanged. However, if a handle is added by cutting two holes in the sphere and connecting them by a curved pipe, then the topology of the surface is changed. 

    Word Tutor
    IN BRIEF: A word that sounds like what it means.
    He listened to the onomatopoeia of the faucet's drip, drip, drip.
    The buzz of busy bees and the thrill of profits - divorced from competition - is music to the ears of communitarian traffickers, freeloaders and parasites.


    moralistic fallacy
    The moralistic fallacy is in essence the reverse of the naturalistic fallacy.
    Naturalistic fallacy presumes that what is—or what occurs—forms what ought to be. Thus the observed natural is reasoned a priori as moral.
    Moralistic fallacy implies that the undesirable opposes nature. It presumes that what ought to be—something deemed preferable—corresponds with what is or naturally occurs. The asserted moral is reasoned a priori as natural.
    Sometimes basic scientific findings or interpretations are rejected, or their discovery or development or acknowledgement is opposed or restricted, through assertions of potential misuse or harmfulness.
    In the late 1970s, Bernard Davis, in response to growing political and public calls to restrict basic research (versus applied research), amid criticisms of dangerous knowledge (versus dangerous applications), applied the term moralistic fallacy toward its present use.
    The term was used as early as 1957 to at least some of differing import.
    Moralistic fallacy:
        Warfare is destructive and tragic, and so it is not of human nature.
        Eating meat harms animals and the environment, and so no one has physiological use for it.
        Men and women ought to be given equal opportunities, and so women and men can do everything equally well.
    Naturalistic fallacy:
        Warfare must be allowed because human violence is instinctive.
        Veganism is folly because humans have eaten meat for thousands of years.
        Adultery is acceptable because people can naturally want more sexual partners.

    In natural science, the moralistic fallacy can result in rejection or suppression of basic science, whose goal is understanding the natural world, on account of its potential misuse in applied science, whose goal is the development of technology or technique. This blurs scientific assessment, discussed in natural sciences (like physics or biology), versus significance assessment, weighed in social sciences (like social psychology, sociology, and political science), or in behavioral sciences (like psychology).
    Davis asserted that in basic science, the descriptive, explanatory, and thus predictive ability of information is primary, not its origin or its applications, since knowledge cannot be ensured against misuse, and misuse cannot falsify knowledge. Both misuse and prevention and suppression of scientific knowledge can have undesired or even undesirable effects. In the early 20th century, development of the basic science quantum physics enabled the atomic bomb through applied science in the mid-20th century. Without quantum physics, however, much technology of communications and imaging, by other applied science, could have been renounced.
    Scientific theories with abundant research support can be discarded in public debates, where general agreement is central but can be utterly false. The obligation of basic scientists to inform the public, however, can be stymied by contrasting claims from others both rousing alarm and touting assurances of protecting the public.[6] Davis had indicated that greater and clearer familiarization with the uses and limitations of science can more effectively prevent knowledge misuse or harm.
    Natural science can help humans understand the natural world, but it cannot make policy, moral, or behavioral decisions. Questions involving values—what people should do—are more effectively addressed through discourse in social sciences, not by restriction of basic science. Misunderstanding of the potential of science, and misplaced expectations, have resulted in moral and decision-making impediments, but suppressing science is unlikely to resolve these dilemmas.
    Seville Statement on Violence
    The Seville Statement on Violence was adopted, in Seville, Spain, on 16 May 1986, by an international meeting of scientists convened by the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO. UNESCO adopted the statement, on 16 November 1989, at the twenty-fifth session of its General Conference. The statement purported to refute "the notion that organized human violence is biologically determined".
    Some, including Steven Pinker, have criticized the Seville Statement as an example of the moralistic fallacy. Research in the areas of evolutionary psychology and neuropsychology suggest that human violence has biological roots.
      See also
        Appeal to tradition
        Appeal to novelty
        Definist fallacy
        Fact-value distinction
    Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence. In his prologue or proem he describes two views of existence; initially that nothing comes from nothing, and therefore existence is eternal. Consequently our opinions about truth must often be false and deceitful.

    Most of western philosophy, and science - including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability and the conservation of energy - have emerged from this view. This posits that existence is what can be conceived of by thought, created, or possessed. Hence, there can be neither void nor vacuum; and true reality can neither come into being nor vanish from existence. Rather, the entirety of creation is eternal, uniform, and immutable, though not infinite (he characterized its shape as that of a perfect sphere). Parmenides thus posits that change, as perceived in everyday experience, is illusory. Everything that can be apprehended is but one part of a single entity. This idea somewhat anticipates the modern concept of an ultimate grand unification theory that finally explains all of existence in terms of one inter-related sub-atomic reality which applies to everything.
    The structure of a system. A system model. The word refers to the branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of reality or being. It therefore refers to "what exists" in a system: all elements within all category hierarchies and the relationships between them.
    Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy
    Derived from the Greek word for being, but a 17th-century coinage for the branch of metaphysics that concerns itself with what exists. Apart from the ontological argument itself there have existed many a priori arguments that the world must contain things of one kind or another: simple things, unextended things, eternal substances, necessary beings, and so on. Such arguments often depend upon some version of the principle of sufficient reason. Kant is the greatest opponent of the view that unaided reason can tell us in detail what kinds of thing must exist, and therefore do exist. In the 20th century, Heidegger is often thought of primarily as an ontologist. Quine's principle of ontological commitment is that to be is to be the value of a bound variable, a principle not telling us what things exist, but how to determine what things a theory claims to exist. These are the things the variables range over in a properly regimented formal presentation of the theory. Philosophers characteristically charge each other with reifying things improperly, and in the history of philosophy every kind of thing will at one time or another have been thought to be the fictitious result of an ontological mistake.

    Random House Word Menu
    Notions, Ideas, and Methods - ontology: metaphysical study of the essence of being and reality
    •absolute - single, eternal explanation for all reality
     •abstraction - that which is theoretical, dissociated from specific instances or phenomena
     •academicism - purely speculative thoughts and opinions
     •a fortiori - (adj) Latin. lit. from a stronger; even more certain, for an even stronger reason
     •agnosticism - belief that we cannot know whether God exists
     •altruism - principle or practice of unselfish concern for the good of others, esp. as a moral act
     •analytic - (adj) being of a type of proposition or statement inherently true by virtue of its terms’ meanings
     •antithesis - second stage of dialectical process, being a proposition directly opposite and apparently contradictory to the thesis
     •a posteriori - (adj) Latin. lit. from what comes later; derived from experience, based on empirical data; from a particular instance to a general law
     •appearance - sensory aspect of existence to an observer
     •a priori - (adj) Latin. lit. from what precedes; independent of and prior to experience; based on reason or inherent logic, independent of empirical data; from a general law to a particular instance
     •archetype - original model from which all others follow, esp. perfect example of type
     •association of ideas - basic principle explaining all mental activity in terms of combining and recombining of certain component elements
     •atheism - rejection of all belief in God
     •automatism - view of body as a machine and consciousness as noncontrolling element of body
     •becoming - that which exists only temporarily or changes from one form to another
     •being - that which has unchanging actuality or substance or is logically conceivable
     •casuistry - skill in science and application of moral decisions and judgments; employment of specious reasoning in moral questions
     •categorical imperative - unconditional moral rule of conduct, not dependent on personal preferences
     •category - basic form or mode of existence
     •cause - that which is responsible for an effect in deterministic thinking; in Aristotelian thinking, that which is based on something’s substance, design, maker, and purpose or function
     •chain of being - hierarchical notion of universe as ordered structure of diminishing complexity from God on down
     •cogito ergo sum - Latin. lit. I think, therefore I am; fundamental argument for idealism, attributed to René Descartes
     •concept - idea capable of being defined and recognized; general idea or class
     •concretion - that which is founded in fact; hard evidence, specific instances, or phenomena
     •connotation - implication of a term, as distinguished from its denotation
     •consciousness - awareness, sentience
     •contingence - condition of being not necessary or of essence
     •corporeal - (adj) relating to the body or physical matter
     •debate - formal argument, esp. between those taking opposite views on single proposition
     •deduction - mode of reasoning leading from general observation to particular conclusion
     •denotation - specific meaning of a term, as distinguished from its connotation
     •dialectic - orig. Socratic philosophic discourse or style of inquiry based on critical examination, later developed by Hegel as dynamic process of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis; Hegelian dialectic
     •dichotomy - division into two classes; distinction based on a basic dissimilarity
     •ding an sich - German. lit. the thing itself; essential being, prior to secondary qualities
     •discourse - orderly, systematic communication, esp. in philosophic discussion
     •discursive - (adj) characterized by analysis
     •dysteleology - assumed absence of purpose and design in nature and phenomena
     •eclecticism - combining of elements from different philosophical systems without resolving their conflicts
     •effect - that which results from a cause in deterministic thinking
     •emotivism - idea that ethical behavior is an expression of feelings and emotions
     •empirical - (adj) pertaining to the senses; dependent on experience and direct observation
     •entelechy - motive force for realization, completion, and perfection
     •epiphenomenalism - idea that body can alter mind, but mind cannot alter body
     •essence - inherent nature of an object, inseparable from its identity and contingent on nothing
     •ethical pluralism - notion that more than one basic moral system can exist
     •evil - moral wrongdoing; malevolence or ethical perversion
     •exegesis - critical explanation
     •existence - being; all that has being and continues to be
     •experience - totality of what is perceived and thought
     •Forms - absolute, eternal, immutable, and perfected Platonic models of which all earthly things are imperfect copies
     •four elements - basic constituents of physical world: earth, air, fire, and water
     •free will - option and power of moral choice in determining one’s behavior
     •golden mean - Aristotelian ethical doctrine of moderation as way to virtuous action
     •good - character or behavior that is a model of moral order of the universe; that which promotes or inspires actions and attitudes supporting happiness and well-being
     •Gordian knot - intricate and difficult problem or circumstance best resolved by cutting through it boldly and imaginatively
     •Hegelian dialectic - dialectic
     •hermeneutics - science of interpretation and explanation
     •heuristic - (adj) characterized by ability to persuade or reveal rather than to convince logically
     •Hobson’s choice - choice between unacceptable alternatives; absence of real alternatives
     •holism - notion that fundamental entities have existence beyond sum of their parts
     •hypothesis - assumption, theory, or proposition made to account for some phenomena
     •hypothetical imperative - conditional rule of conduct: if certain results are desired, certain actions must be taken
     •idea - something present in consciousness; in Platonic terms, an archetype or essential concept
     •ideal world - world of permanent truth
     •immanent - (adj) existing within the mind only
     •indeterminism - notion that some events do not have any cause
     •induction - mode of reasoning leading from particular observations to general conclusions
     •inference - mode of reasoning in which conclusion is derived from premises accepted as true
     •infinite regress - endless series of arguments connected by interdependent premises and conclusions
     •innate ideas - inborn ideas not based on experience
     •intellect - ability to think
     •intuition - direct apprehension of knowledge, without application of reason
     •knowledge - understanding based on experience, intuition, and reason
     •li - ultimate embodiment of good in Confucianism
     •Logos - universal rational principle that orders the universe
     •maieutic - (adj) pertaining to the Socratic method for clarifying ideas
     •methodology - study of the nature of inquiry
     •mind-body duality - idea that mind and body are distinct
     •model - ideal form of image, object, or argument
     •monad - Greek. lit. unit; ultimate, indivisible force center that is unit of all existence
     •moral skepticism - notion that ethical principles have no objective basis
     •natural law - naturally occurring moral rules that form universal law higher than man-made law
     •natural rights - innate rights of humanity, such as life, liberty, equality, and the pursuit of happiness, that cannot be denied by society
     •noetics - science of the intellect or of pure thought
     •noncontradiction - principle that statement cannot be both true and false and object cannot both have and not have some quality
     •noumenon - Greek. lit. that which is conceived; reality that cannot be experienced, as opposed to appearance or phenomena
     •nous - Greek. lit. mind; universal principle of reason, embodied in God
     •Occam’s razor - principle that simplest explanation or theory is correct and should not be needlessly multiplied
     •ontological argument - attempt to prove existence of God by analysis of definition of God
     •ontology - metaphysical study of the essence of being and reality
     •organon - system of rules or principles for demonstration or examination
     •pantheism - belief that God and universe are identical
     •particular - individual, specific instance, object, or term for a universal or general class
     •percept - sense perception rather than idea of an object
     •perceptual error - false or distorted sense perception
     •perceptual judgment - judgment based on sense perception
     •Peripatetic - follower of Aristotle, so called from practice of walking while teaching
     •petitio principii - Latin. lit. postulation of the beginning; assumption of a premise identical with the conclusion
     •phenomena - objects and events known through sensory experience
     •phenomenal world - world of appearances
     •philosopher king - Platonic ideal of philosopher ruling and leading society
     •physicalism - theory that all factual statements can be reduced to observations of phenomena
     •poetic - (adj) apprehended by the emotions
     •praxis - action and practice rather than theory
     •primary quality - characteristic inherent in an object, such as its shape, size, or mass
     •quintessence - essence of a substance; substance other than four elements believed to compose celestial bodies
     •reality - that which exists independently of ideas about it and independently of all other things, but from which all else derives
     •reason - intellectual faculty, ability to comprehend by rational powers; systematic thinking, judgment of truth of propositions
     •secondary quality - characteristic in object capable of stimulating sense perception, such as color or sound
     •sensationalism - empiricist view that sensations are both source and verification of all knowledge
     •sentience - ability to sense or feel
     •situation ethics - moral evaluation of any action in relation to specific circumstance
     •social contract - concept that society is based on agreement among people to be governed
     •Socratic method - dialectic technique of inquiry developed by Plato’s teacher Socrates (Greece, 5th c. B.C.)
     •solipsism - theory that one can be aware of nothing outside the self and one’s personal perceptions and feelings
     •sophistry - use of persuasive but misleading or unsound argument
     •spiritualism - view that the spirit is ultimate reality in universe
     •state of nature - concept in political philosophy describing condition of humankind without government
     •substance - that which exists by itself or is the essential part of something
     •sufficient reason - principle that there is a reason for every phenomenon being as it is and not otherwise
     •summum bonum - Latin. lit. highest good; moral principle of action based on effecting the greatest good
     •superman - ideal, superior being described in work of Friedrich Nietzsche
     •synthesis - dialectical combining of thesis and antithesis into higher stage of truth
     •synthetic - type of proposition or statement in which predicate adds, or synthesizes, knowledge
     •tabula rasa - Latin. lit. blank tablet; empiricist description of human mind at birth, with no innate ideas, awaiting experience to develop ideas
     •teleology - belief in purpose and design in nature and phenomena
     •theorem - principle, rule
     •theory - hypothesis or speculation rather than action
     •thesis - proposition held for proof by argument
     •transeunt - (adj) producing an effect outside the mind
     •truth - accord between internal and external realities; established and accepted principles of observation, action, or behavior; reality itself
     •unexamined life - existence apart from philosophical inquiry, deemed not worth living by Plato
     •universal - general concept having unrestricted application; proposition true for all members of its class
     •values - moral standards and social goals held worthy for their own sake
     •verifiability - ability of statement to be confirmed as true or refuted as false
     •vice - moral corruption or evil
     •virtue - moral integrity or excellence
     •will - ability to make choices
     •will to power - Friedrich Nietzsche’s view that power is the prime motivating force in human nature
     •zetetic - (adj) seeking; (n) seeker
    For the science of the care of the elderly, see geriatrics; for the study of aging in humans, see gerontology; for experimental gerontology, see life extension; for human aging, see aging.
    Senescence or biological aging is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages after its maturity. Such changes range from those affecting its cells and their function to those affecting the whole organism. There are a number of theories as to why senescence occurs; for example, some posit it is programmed by gene expression changes, others that it is the cumulative damage caused by biological processes. Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms. A variety of organisms, including some cold-blooded animals, have negligible senescence. This fact, and recent scientific successes in rejuvenation and extending the lifespan of model animals (mice, 2.5 times; yeast, 15 times; nematodes, 10 times) have inspired hope that aging may similarly be canceled, reversed or at least significantly delayed in humans.

    The word senescence is derived from the Latin word senex, meaning old man, old age, or advanced in age.
    Measure of a system's energy that is unavailable for work, or of the degree of a system's disorder. When heat is added to a system held at constant temperature, the change in entropy is related to the change in energy, the pressure, the temperature, and the change in volume. Its magnitude varies from zero to the total amount of energy in a system. The concept, first proposed in 1850 by the German physicist Rudolf Clausius (1822 – 1888), is sometimes presented as the second law of thermodynamics, which states that entropy increases during irreversible processes such as spontaneous mixing of hot and cold gases, uncontrolled expansion of a gas into a vacuum, and combustion of fuel. In popular, nontechnical use, entropy is regarded as a measure of the chaos or randomness of a system.
    Apophasis (Late Latin, from Greek ἀπόφασις from ἀποφάναι—apophanai, "to say no") refers, in general, to "mention by not mentioning". Apophasis covers a wide variety of figures of speech.
    Allusion to something by denying that it will be mentioned, as in I will not bring up my opponent's questionable financial dealings

    [Late Latin, from Greek, from apophanai, to say no: apo-, apo- + phanai, to say.]

    An assertion (as opposed to a question, a doubt or a more expressive sense) is apophantic. It is a statement that covers up meaning and just gives us something as present-at-hand. For Instance, "The President is on vacation", and, "Salt is Sodium Chloride" are sentences that, because of their apophantic character, can easily be picked-up and repeated in news and gossip by 'The They.' However, the real ready-to-hand meaning and context may be lost.



    1. Produced artificially rather than by a natural process.
    2. Lacking authenticity or genuineness; sham: speculators responsible for the factitious value of some stocks
    IN BRIEF: Not natural or genuine.

    pronunciation The whole speech seemed to be factitious so I could not believe in its content.

    Tutor's tip: The collector made a "factious" (quarrelsome) remark to the "fatuous" (silly, inane) shopkeeper who tried to sell her a "factitious" (lacking authenticity) antique with a "fictitious" (invented) history.


    Iatrogenesis, or an iatrogenic artifact; "originating from a physician") is an inadvertent adverse effect or complication resulting from medical treatment or advice, including that of psychologists, therapists, pharmacists, nurses, physicians and dentists. Iatrogenesis is not restricted to conventional medicine: It can also result from complementary and alternative medicine treatments.

    Some iatrogenic artifacts are clearly defined and easily recognized, such as a complication following a surgical procedure. Some less obvious ones can require significant investigation to identify, such as complex drug interactions. Furthermore, some conditions have been described for which it is unknown, unproven, or even controversial whether they are iatrogenic or not; this has been encountered in particular with regard to various psychological and chronic-pain conditions. Research in these areas continues.

    Causes of iatrogenesis include chance, medical error, negligence, social control, unexamined instrument design, anxiety or annoyance related to medical procedures,and the adverse effects or interactions of medications. In the United States, an estimated 44,000 to 98,000 deaths per year may be attributed in some part to iatrogenesis.


    Swastika on the Seal of the Theosophical Society

    The word swastika came from the Sanskrit word suastika, meaning any lucky or auspicious object, and in particular a mark made on persons and things to denote auspiciousness. It is composed of su- meaning "good, well" and asti "to be" suasti thus means "well-being." The suffix -ka either forms a diminutive or intensifies the verbal meaning, and suastika might thus be translated literally as "that which is associated with well-being," corresponding to "lucky charm" or "thing that is auspicious."

    The word in this sense is first used in the Harivamsa. As noted by Monier-Williams in his Sanskrit-English dictionary, according to Alexander Cunningham, its shape represents a monogram formed by interlacing of the letters of the auspicious words su-astí (svasti) written in Ashokan characters

    The Sanskrit term has been in use in English since 1871, replacing gammadion (from Greek γαμμάδιον). Alternative historical English spellings of the Sanskrit phonological words with different meanings to include suastika, swastica and svastica.

    Other names for the shape are:

    • crooked cross, hook cross or angled cross (Hebrew: צלב קרס, German: Hakenkreuz).
    • cross cramponned, ~nnée, or ~nny, in heraldry, as each arm resembles a crampon or angle-iron (German: Winkelmaßkreuz).
    • fylfot, chiefly in heraldry and architecture. The term is coined in the 19th century based on a misunderstanding of a Renaissance manuscript.
    • gammadion, tetragammadion (Greek: τετραγαμμάδιον), or cross gammadion (Latin: crux gammata; French: croix gammée), as each arm resembles the Greek letter Γ (gamma).
    • tetraskelion (Greek: τετρασκέλιον), literally meaning "four legged", especially when composed of four conjoined legs (compare triskelion (Greek: τρισκέλιον)).
    • The Tibetan swastika (࿖) is known as g-yung drung

    The Buddhist sign has been standardised as a Chinese character (pinyin: wàn) and as such entered various other East Asian languages such as Japanese where the symbol is called 卍字 (manji). The swastika is included as part of the Chinese script in the form of the character "萬" (pinyin: wàn) and has Unicode encodings U+534D 卍 (left-facing) and U+5350 卐 (right-facing). In Unicode 5.2, four swastika symbols were added to the Tibetan block: U+0FD5 ࿕ (right-facing), U+0FD6 ࿖ (left-facing), U+0FD7 ࿗ (right-facing with dots) and U+0FD8 ࿘ (left-facing with dots).

    Besides the use as a religious symbol in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, which can be traced to pre-modern traditions, the swastika is also used by a number of new religious movements established in the modern period.

    • The Theosophical Society uses a swastika as part of its seal, along with an Aum, a hexagram, a star of David, an Ankh and an Ouroboros. Unlike the much more recent Raëlian movement (see below), the Theosophical Society symbol has been free from controversy, and the seal is still used. The current seal also includes the text "There is no religion higher than truth."
    • The Raëlian Movement, who believe that Extra-Terrestrials originally created all life on earth, use a symbol that is often the source of considerable controversy: an interlaced star of David and a swastika. The Raelians state that the Star of David represents infinity in space whereas the swastika represents infinity in time i.e. there being no beginning and no end in time, and everything being cyclic. In 1991, the symbol was changed to remove the swastika, out of respect to the victims of the Holocaust, but as of 2007 has been restored to its original form.
    • The Tantra-based new religious movement Ananda Marga (Devanagari: आनन्द मार्ग, meaning Path of Bliss) uses a motif similar to the Raëlians, but in their case the apparent star of David is defined as intersecting triangles with no specific reference to Jewish culture.
    • The Falun Gong qigong movement uses a symbol that features a large swastika surrounded by four smaller (and rounded) ones, interspersed with yin-and-yang symbols. The usage is taken from traditional Chinese symbolism, and here alludes to a chakra-like portion of the esoteric human anatomy, located in the stomach.
    • The Odinic Rite claims the fylfot as a holy symbol of Odinism, citing the pre-Christian Germanic use of the symbol.

    International Coalition for Drug Awareness

    Presidential Emergency Powers
    Maxim of Law
    The tools belong to the man who can use them.

    Permaculture Can Save the World -- But Not Civilization

    (full documentary)

    Lost History

    Timeline of Ancient Civilizations for 19,000 Years

    Telepathy and Premonition
    John Kaminski

    Why Christians are unreliable allies
    If you think the worldwide leader of the Roman Catholic Church can call Jews the elder brothers of Christians, then you better think about that part of the Jewish Talmud that says the corpse of Jesus Christ is hanging upside down in a vat of excrement for eternity.

    The gay plague
    All societies coalesce on the basis of protection of one's own children and property. Homosexuals and Jews sabotage this life-sustaining coalescence as they are motivated by their own pathological and physiologically deviant propensities.

    2012 — the final battle
    I said this years ago. It is the intent of our masters to make the whole world just like Palestine. Already they are going house to house in New Orleans relieving people of their weapons...

    The shadowmasters' garage
    As usual, on a Saturday morning, unusually warm for December, Beanie and Whiplash were down at the shadowmasters' garage, tinkering with this secret gadget they'd acquired — presumably by mail, possibly over the Internet — some months earlier....

    The secret you never get to hear
    My thoughts keep returning to the strange similarity between the way religions and the government do business. Always some secret reason — something too holy for us uppity slaves to appreciate, or some piece of information too sensitive for us ignorant citizens to be trusted with.

    How to get smart and stay smart
    An essay on REAL genius

    Something to shoot for
    So the question now becomes for everyone not something to shoot for, but someone to shoot at. No more discussion is necessary. They have passed a law that allows them to kill us without explaining the reason why, on the say-so of a cutout politician who has no verifiable history.

    Our leaders deserve to be jailed
    Like I always say, every person on this earth knows the difference between right and wrong. It's just that not every person can tell the truth.

    The piece of the puzzle they always leave out
    Who are the handsome propagandists who refuse to mention poppy fields and debauched Russian girls in Israeli brothels but talk about the need to fight communism in Afghanistan?

    Milk teeth
    Jesus was standing at the turnstiles, arms outstretched, beseeching a churlish throng hurrying to pass through to the other side. The place looked an awful lot like the Hoboken path train station at rush hour.

    Use your brain
    If you want to call me an anti-Semite for mentioning it, then you too are an insincere robot stooge trying to conceal your own guilt.

    When evil casts no shadow
    On his popular cable TV show, Jon Stewart Leibowitz once made a joke about how the Jews runs the world. First, all the gentiles in his audience laughed nervously. Then he raised his eyebrows, and all the Jews in the audience laughed knowingly.

    The missing piece
    So we die. Big deal. The task then becomes to see how much real love we can actually produce in a short period of time. Prayer and piety are for fools; right action is the only answer.

    The stupid list
    Which of the 196 recognized nations on our formerly lovely planet can rightfully claim the title of the stupidest country on Earth? One thing is certain — there is no shortage of legitimate nominees.
    Giza Death Star
    Mr. Farrell has a new book out on transhumanism and what's behind it
    Genes, Giants, Monsters, and Men

    The Surviving Elites of the Cosmic War and Their Hidden Agenda

    By Joseph P. Farrell

    Yahweh The Two-Faced God

    Theology, Terrorism, and Topology

    By Joseph P. Farrell

    Regulating Religion

    The Courts and the Free Exercise Clause

    By Catharine Cookson

    Oxford University Press


    Virus of the Mind

    The New Science of the Meme


    If you've ever wondered how and why people become robotically enslaved by advertising, religion, sexual fantasy, and cults, wonder no more. It's all because of "mind viruses," or "memes," and those who understand how to plant them into other's minds. This is the first truly accessible book about memes and how they make the world go 'round.
    Of course, like all good memes, the ideas in Brodie's book are double-edged swords. They can vaccinate against the effects of cognitive viruses, but could also be used by those seeking power to gain it even more effectively. If you don't want to be left behind in the coevolutionary arms race between infection and protection, read about memes. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.  


    Anyone who wants to be involved in media in the next ten years must understand memetics and must read Virus of the Mind. -- Danny Bannister, President, The Mental Fitness Company, Inc. --This text refers to the Hardcover edition.

    More research links below...


    Rise of the Archons - Jeff Rense Radio Transcript of Interview with Jay Weidner

    TJ Research

    Metahistory: Beyond the Tyranny of Beliefs

    Metahistory is a path beyond the received scripts of history and culture, toward a world free from enslavement to historical lies and unexamined beliefs.

    Humanity is a species endangered by its beliefs, and most of all, its religious illusion of superiority. To go beyond history is not solely a human prerogative, for the path ahead is not ours alone, but the way of all sentient beings.

    Closely aligned with deep ecology, and going deeper, this site develops open source spirituality that can reflect the innate sanity of humankind. It explores the question of what is a true planetary view, a way to live bonded intimately to the earth and coevolving with the non-human world. Toward that end, it invites a future myth, a story to guide the species and align one person at a time to
    Gaia, the living planet....
    "Knowledge of that which is alive can alone banish terror."
    Wilhelm Reich, The Function of the Orgasm

    Two powers in heaven: early rabbinic reports about Christianity and Gnosticism

    Revelation 22:16

    "I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star."(My italics ~Lark)


    Theonomy? you ask.  That’s all right; this page will help you.  The following excerpt is by Dr. Robert P. Lightner, from his fine article, “Theonomy and Dispensationalism” (Bibliotheca Sacra - January-March 1986)
    Theonomy means Law of God.  It is not a system of theology.  It is rather a contemporary emphasis on the relationship of the Law to the present age, stemming from Covenant Theology and associated with the current expression of Postmillennialism.
    Postmillennial Theonomy is championed in the “Journal of Reconstruction,” the Chalcedon Ministries, Christianity and Civilization, Christian Liberty Academy, and the Geneva Divinity School Press of Tyler, Texas.   Some of the contributors to the movement are Greg L. Bahnsen, Paul Lindstrom, James B. Jordan, Gary North, Rousas John Rushdoony, and Norman Shepherd.
    Actually, Theonomy is Calvinist-Covenant theology gone to seed, and poison seed at that.  It is an extreme example of what can happen in law-orientation outside the realm of dispensational truth.  The following are five points from Lightner’s article.
    1. Theonomy is founded on Covenant Theology.  But Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology represent different systems of theology.
    2. Theonomy insists that no distinction exists between God’s program with Israel and His program for the Church.  But this distinction is the sine qua non of Dispensationalism.
    3. Theonomy believes that the Old Testament Law of God--in brief, the entire Mosaic economy--is still in force today.  But Dispensationalism believes that the Law of Moses as a rule of life [for the Jew] was terminated for this age at Calvary. [Besides, the believer is dead to the Law].
    4. Theonomy believes it is the duty of the Church to bring civil powers into subjection to God’s Law, both its precepts and its penalties.   But Dispensationalism does not believe this for a moment.
    5. Theonomy does not believe in a future for Israel as a nation.  But Dispensationalism most assuredly does!

    Walter Veith Exposed

    ... Seventh Day Adventist Wolf in Sheep's Clothing!

    One of the most deceitful, dangerous and demonic cults in the world are SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS [SDA]. They are extremely deceitful. On the surface they seem to believe the Biblical Gospel; but a closer look into their beliefs reveals a works-based, Sabbath keeping, Commandment keeping, Ellen G. White idolizing cult. The most influential figure in SDA is unquestionably Ellen G. White, an alleged prophetess. She is no different than the Witch of Endor in the Old Testament, who dealt with familiar demonic spirits.
    Professor Walter J. Veith has traveled widely throughout North America and the world corrupting woefully ignorant people with his Amazing Discoveries Seminar to large enthusiastic crowds. As is typical with Adventists, you won't be able to identify the cult from looking at their website. SDA's are very sneaky.

    Walter Veith exposes the demonic Catholic religion and the whacko Charismatic Movement, and rightfully so; but Mr. Veith needs to also be exposed for supporting the demonic cult of Seventh-Day Adventism. Honestly, you have to totally disregard the Word of God and genuinely love for Jesus Christ to follow and support such a bizarre, unbiblical and blasphemous religion as Seventh-Day Adventism. Slice it any way you want, the irrefutable FACT of the matter is that Seventh-Day Adventism would not exist today is it were not for a nutcase minister named William Miller, who wrongly predicted that Jesus would return in 1844. The failed event became known as THE GREAT DISAPPOINTMENT.
    Paul As Herodian

    They Fly: Exploring the Billy Meier UFO Contacts

    Yahoo search: "Gommar DePauw communism"

    Ted Pike - A Critical View
    (Visit Ted Pike's site - - to watch the video and textual accounts of his wife Allyn's recent suicide)


    Era of Reform, Communitarianism, Literacy Renaissance

    NY Times
    Justices Grant Leeway to Churches in Job Bias Laws
    (From Google Alert: "communitarian")

    Without equality, democracy and social justice, which are three interrelated factors, secularism cannot exist as a positive value in society.
    (From Google Alert: "communitarian")
    The Telegraph

    O Canada our only hope

    (From Google Alert: "communitarian")

    Prophets, Principles and National Survival

    1964 Mormon text

    Wordsmanship Semantics As a Communist Weapon

     A Study Prepared for the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws

    Still looking for a copy of this... ~Lark
    Ocala Star-Banner, January 18, 1962
    Communists Use Different Languages to Suit People
    8 April 1966

    A Chinese Communist National Strategy Toward Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand

    Korzybski Files
    News Flash from the Institute of General Semantics
    The Institute of General Semantics is pleased to announce that its judges have selected The Hidden Side of Babel: Unveiling Cognition, Intelligence and Sense by Laura Bertone (Buenos Aries: Evolución, 2006) as the winner of its inaugural Samuel I. Hayakawa Book Prize. The Hayakawa Book Prize goes to the most outstanding work published in the past five years on topics of direct relevance to the discipline of general semantics, and includes a cash award of $1,000. The Hidden Side of Babel was chosen by judges Martin Levinson, Jacqueline Rudig, and Lance Strate, from a highly competitive field of ten finalists. Dr. Bertone is a Visiting Professor at the Masters’ Program of Translation and Interpretation at the University of Buenos Aires, and the Director of the consulting firm EVOLUCION, devoted to improving communication processes and to organizing educational seminars and events. A native of Argentina, she worked in Paris as an AIIC professional conference interpreter for twenty years, and holds a Ph.D. in Linguistics from Paris VIII University. The Hayakawa Prize will be presented to Laura Bertone at the Across the Generations: Legacies of Hope and Meaning conference on September 11-13, 2009, at Fordham University in New York City, where she will be one of the featured speakers.
    Congratulations Laura! My wife helped Laura edit her book and having read it myself I heartily recommend it to one and all. In a very real sense we all actually speak different languages even if we speak the 'same' language. What are the challenges in trying to understand and not misunderstand, to be understood and not be misunderstood? How do we know when we are doing one and not the other? Laura's book will give you a new perspective on how you communicate and how you can do it better.

    The Daily Bell

    Emerging Totalitarianism

    New Jersey will pay you $1000 to destroy the second amendment

    Things That Make You Go Hmmm - Such As A "Common Currency"

    R.I.P. Larry Ribstein: The Rise of the Uncorporation

    Lawrence Reed and the Resurgence of FEE

    The Rise of the House of Rothschild


    Translated from the German by Brian and Beatrix Lunn

    The Inevitable

    By Attorney Jonathan Emord

    Author of 'The Rise of Tyranny' and
    'Global Censorship of Health Information'

    Time to Destroy the CFR 
    By JB Campbell

    Samisdat14's channel

    The Law of Nations

    Integral Sustainable Design

    Transformative Perspectives

     Integral Sustainable Design, [] reconciles divergent knowledge arenas and priorities while establishing integral sustainable design as a unique practice, ideal for this time of environmental and communitarian crisis. It’s author, Mark DeKay, prods the profession and asks, what design challenges lie beyond whole systems design? And how can we shift our focus from ‘doing’ design to ‘being’ design? DeKay, a professor of architecture and director of Graduate Studies, College of Architecture and Design at the University of Tennessee, has crafted an accessible introduction to the fascinating emerging field of integral studies as applied to the practice of architecture.
    Autobiography of a Yogi

    By Paramhansa Yogananda


    Northeast Organic Wheat

    Organic farmers and traditional bakers working together to develop delicious artisan wheats

    Anthelme Brillat-Savarin


    Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are.

    The discovery of a new dish does more for human happiness than the discovery of a star.

    Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was a French lawyer and politician. He served as mayor of Belley, the city where he was born, but his opposition to the Jacobins during the French Revolution made it necessary for him to flee to Switzerland in 1792. He then made his way to New York, where he taught language and played violin in the John Street Theater Orchestra to support himself.

    After two years in New York, Brillat-Savarin spent time in Connecticut familiarizing himself with American culture and food. He took advantage of the opportunity to ask Thomas Jefferson how to prepare a wild turkey. Approximately four years after his exile, Brillat-Savarin was able to return to France after being reinstated as an honorable person. Soon after, he began serving as a judge of the Supreme Court of Appeal in Paris, a post he held for the rest of his life.

    Brillat-Savarin embraced Parisian society and intellectual life, but he is best known for his culinary expertise and his twenty aphorisms on food, one of which was, "Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are." Even as a child he loved to be near the kitchen. While in Paris, he wrote Physiology of Taste, or Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy, which he published anonymously. Chapters discussed, among other things, the aphrodisiac properties of certain foods, the nature of digestion, and the dangers of acids in the stomach. The book was a success, and the people of Paris were anxious to learn the identity of this very witty and elegant author. His colleagues were not as impressed as the public and looked down on him, not considering him to be an expert in a relevant field of study. He had previously written various treatises on dueling, economics, and history, but these were not very well known.

    Brillat-Savarin contributed to the knowledge of digestion and nutrition through his essays on food and taste. He also shared his ideas on food preparation and its role in life and philosophy, and he provided discourses on obesity and its cure (and on thinness and its cure). In recognition of his achievements, various dishes, garnishes, and a cheese bear his name.

    Brillat-Savarin's work reflects interactions with philosophers and physicians of his time. While he remained a bachelor all his life, he had many prominent guests sitting at his table for meals, and he often sat at the best tables of Paris. Among his guests were Napoleon's doctor, Jean-Nicolas Corvisart, the surgeon Guillaume Dupuytren, the pathologist Jean Cruveilhier, and other great minds. Cruveilhier was such an authority on the stomach that gastric ulcers are referred to as Cruveilhier's disease. Through such interactions, Brillat-Savarin undoubtedly gained knowledge about the chemistry of food and how it relates to the physiology of digestion. So passionate was Brillat-Savarin about food that many people identified him more often as a chef rather than a lawyer.